Gabriel Tarde


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Tarde, Gabriel

 

Born Mar. 12, 1843, in Sarlat; died May 13, 1904, in Paris. French sociologist and criminologist.

From 1894 to 1896, Tarde headed a section in the Ministry of Justice. Later he taught and was made a professor of modern philosophy at the College de France in 1900. His sociological theory is pervaded by psychologism. According to Tarde, the psychology of the individual is the starting point of society, and the key processes occurring in society are those of imitation, opposition, and adaptation. Imitation is characteristic of individuals and facilitates their adaptation. Society is made possible by a universal law of repetition. The sole source of progress of society is invention, which is due to individual initiative and new combinations of existing ideas. As a result of imitation, the individual acquires both established norms and values and innovations. Tarde’s ideas were later developed in the theories of the socialization of the personality.

Tarde’s research demonstrated the difference between social psychology and individual psychology. According to Tarde, human beings taken collectively—especially in a crowd—are far more emotional and excitable and less intellectual than human beings taken individually. On the basis of this theory, Tarde was opposed to mass organs of state authority.

Tarde also wrote a number of works on the philosophy of law. His ideas influenced American sociology.

WORKS

La Criminalité comparée. Paris, 1886.
La Philosophic pénale. Paris, 1890.
Les Transformations du droil, 2nd ed. Paris, 1894.
L’Opposition universelle. Paris, 1897.
Etudes de psychologie sociale. Paris, 1898.
Les Transformations dupouvoir. Paris, 1899.
La Psychologie économique, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1902.
L’Opinion et la foule, 4th ed. Paris, 1922.
In Russian translation:
Zakony podrazhaniia. St. Petersburg, 1892.
Prestupleniia tolpy. Kazan, 1893.
Sotsial’naia logika. St. Petersburg, 1901.
Sotsial’nye zakony. St. Petersburg, 1906.
References in periodicals archive ?
In der Sozialtheorie von Gabriel Tarde gehen Entwicklung und Wandel zuruck auf Erfindungen und Initiativen, die nachgeahmt und so zu sozialen Innovationen werden (Tarde 2009 a).
Puis, peu a peu, ton gout de la contingence radicale s'aligne dans le temps profond avec, disons, le reve du cher Gabriel Tarde, le genial sociologue des Lois de l'imitation.
Some of these phrases were invented, but others were borrowed from Alfred Lord Tennyson's "Ulysses" or The Underground Man, a nineteenth-century postapocalyptic novella by Gabriel Tarde, a French sociologist who rejected grand theories of society in favor of explaining societal patterns through "the accumulation of elementary actions.
Por ultimo, Sergio Tonkonoff trae a nuestra revista una reflexion sobre algunos conceptos centrales en la obra del sociologo decimononico Gabriel Tarde.
But even earlier, at the turn of the 20th century, French social psychological Gabriel Tarde (1898/1989) announced that an item in the newspaper has no influence unless it becomes the subject of conversation (see also Clark, 1969/2014; and Katz, Ali, & Kim, 2014 (1)).
We learn of denied applications and successful promotions, positive and negative reviews of Durkheim's work, and early competitors in the sociological arena who opposed and supported his project--individuals such as Rene Worms, Gabriel Tarde, and Gustave Le Bon, whose contributions to sociology's early history may not be well known to English readers.
En las historias de la sociologia Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904) es mencionado casi exclusivamente como el perdedor de la polemica que sobre los fundamentos de la sociologia sostuvo con Emile Durkheim, en los albores contemporaneos de esta disciplina.
To be more specific, it is proposed that the concepts of imitation, suggestion, and crowds, which will be distilled from the writings of Gabriel Tarde (and more recent scholars reinventing his work), enable examinations of alcohol and drug use that build on the growing body of posthumanist work in the field by clarifying how AOD practices can be cultivated and modulated affectively by (masses of) people in spaces.
As the editor's goal is to create a textbook in anthology format, some contributions are reprints, rather than original contributions for this volume (the French criminologist Gabriel Tarde, who died in 1904, is included).
Por meio de um solido cabedal teorico, busca em Boaventura Santos, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, Michel Foucault, Antonio Negri, Michael Hardt e Gabriel Tarde a fundamentacao teorica para suas reflexoes, analises e posicionamentos.
An alternative line of inquiry has revived the work of Gabriel Tarde by valorizing imitation for exploring contagious collective behaviour.
Terry Clark, ed, Gabriel Tarde On Communication and Social Influence (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969); Jurgen Habermas, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, translated by Thomas Burger (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991); Sonia M Livingstone, ed, Audiences and Publics: When Cultural Engagement Matters for the Public Sphere (Bristol: Intellectual Press, 2005); Michael Warner, Public and Counter Publics (Brooklyn: Zone Books, 2002).