Gabrieli, Andrea

Gabrieli, Andrea

(ändrĕ`ä gäbrēā`lē), c.1510–1586, Italian organist and composer; possibly a pupil of Adrian Willaert. In 1536 he was a chorister at St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice, where, in 1566, he became organist at the second organ. He composed madrigals, motets, masses, and ricercari and canzones for organ. He was important in the development of multiple-choir technique, and he was the teacher of Hans Leo Hassler and of his nephew Giovanni Gabrieli (jōvän`nē), c.1555–1612. Giovanni was for a time a singer in the court choir under Lasso in Munich and became (1585) second organist at St. Mark's, succeeding to first organ on the death of his uncle two years later. He brought the multiple-choir technique to its highest development, and he was most important in the development of the concertoconcerto
, musical composition usually for an orchestra and a soloist or a group of soloists. In the 16th cent. concertare and concertato implied an ensemble, either vocal or instrumental.
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 style, i.e., differentiation of choral and solo ensembles. His Sonata pian'e forte (pub. in Sacrae symphoniae, 1597), the first piece of printed instrumental music containing dynamic indications, and the indication of specific instrumentation in his posthumously published works represent the beginnings of modern orchestration.

Bibliography

See studies by E. F. Kenton (1967) and D. Arnold (1979).

Gabrieli, Andrea

 

Born between 1510 and 1520, in Venice; died in 1586, in Venice. Italian composer.

Gabrieli began his career in 1536 as a singer; in 1558 he was named organist of the Church of St. Jeremiah (Venice) and in 1584 first organist of St. Mark’s Cathedral. A leading member of the Venetian school, he wrote ecclesiastical compositions for several choruses with orchestra and two organs. He also wrote secular compositions, music for festive ceremonies (the victory at Lepanto in 1571, the opening of the Olimpico Theater in Vicenza in 1585), madrigals, and organ pieces. Gabrieli’s students and successors include H. L. Hassler, G. Croce, O. Vecchi, A. Banchieri, and G. Gabrieli.

REFERENCE

Benvenuti, G. Andrea e Giovanni Gabrieli e la musica strumentale in San Marco, vols. 1-2. Milan, 1931-32.
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