Irish language

(redirected from Gaelic language)

Irish language,

also called Irish Gaelic and Erse, member of the Goidelic group of the Celtic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Celtic languagesCeltic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. At one time, during the Hellenistic period, Celtic speech extended all the way from Britain and the Iberian Peninsula in the west across Europe to Asia Minor in the east, where a district still known as
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). The history of Irish as a literary language falls into three periods: Old Irish (7th–9th cent. A.D.), Middle Irish (10th–16th cent.), and Modern Irish (since the 16th cent.). In the medieval period a great Irish literature flourished. Grammatically, there are still four cases for the noun (nominative, genitive, vocative, and, in some dialects, dative). In pronunciation the stress is on the first syllable. An acute accent is placed over a vowel to denote length, and a dot is placed over a consonant to indicate aspiration. The alphabet employed today for Irish can be called a variant or a derivative of the Roman alphabet that took shape about the 8th cent. A.D. It has 18 letters: 13 consonants and 5 vowels. The oldest extant Irish texts are inscriptions written in the ogham script (see oghamogham,
 ogam,
or ogum
, ancient Celtic alphabet of one of the Irish runic languages. It was used by the druids and abandoned after the first few centuries of the Christian era.
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). These texts date back to the 5th cent. A.D. or perhaps earlier and differ as much from the early literary Irish that follows them as Latin does from Old French. Native speakers of Irish are now concentrated in the western counties of Ireland. The government of Ireland is trying, thus far unsuccessfully, to revive Irish as the primary language of the country; it is an official language, and the study of Irish is required in preparatory schools. See also Gaelic literatureGaelic literature,
literature in the native tongue of Ireland and Scotland. Since Scots Gaelic became separate from Irish Gaelic only in the 17th cent., the literature is conventionally divided into Old Irish (before 900), Middle Irish (until 1350), Late Middle or Early Modern
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.

Bibliography

See H. Wagner, Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects (4 vol., 1958–69); R. P. M. and W. P. Lehman, An Introduction to Old Irish (1975).

References in classic literature ?
In this sore and irritable mood did the captain pursue his course, keeping a wary eye on every movement, and bristling up whenever the detested sound of the Gaelic language grated upon his ear.
In the Gaeltacht region of west Donegal, the strong connections between Scots and Irish through the Gaelic language mean it's not so hard to share a 'cupla focal' (few words).
r Ostaig, the National Centre for Gaelic language and culture, was congratulated by Minister for Learning, Science and Scotland s Languages, Dr Alasdair Allan.
Gaelic language activist Domhnall O Lubhlai, 84, died in 2013 without facing prosecution for hundreds of sexual abuse claims dating back over half a century.
He said: "I have connections to North Uist where my wife's father hails from so I have enjoyed the Gaelic language for many years and have a strong interest in learning it.
Galway -- Considered the most Irish of all cities, here, one is surrounded by Gaelic language and tradition, while strolling medieval streets, scenic shorelines and historic squares.
Galway (maiden call)- Considered the "most Irish" of all cities, here, one is surrounded by Gaelic language, traditions, and glee while strolling medieval streets, scenic shorelines, and historic squares.
He studied Irish folk culture and the Gaelic language.
Their debut album, self-titled Barrule, presents a diverse range of marches, jigs and reels, sorrowful slow airs and beautiful songs sung in the Manx Gaelic language.
The game will be televised live on BBC Alba, a Gaelic language channel.
The series will also be the first project CBeebies, RTE and S4C have collaborated on together and will be premiered concurrently on all three channels on October 24, as well as appearing on Gaelic language channel MG Alba in Scotland.
The extent of Brooke's knowledge of the Gaelic language is unknown.