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(both: kă`sŭng`), Jap. Kaijo, city (1993 pop. 334,433), S North Korea. A long-time commercial center, it is important for its exports of ginseng, a valuable medicinal root. There is also active trade in rice, barley, and wheat. Textiles are made in the city, and there is some heavy industry. A special economic zone where South Korean firms manufacture products for export is there; a highway connects the zone with South Korea. Operations at the facility have been interrupted at times by North-South tensions.

In the 10th cent. Wang Kon, founder of the Koryo dynasty, made Kaesong his capital; the city, then called Songdo, remained Korea's capital until 1392, when the Choson (or Yi) dynasty moved the capital to Seoul. Intersected by the 38th parallel, Kaesong served as the main contact point between North and South Korea from 1945 to 1951 and passed from United Nations to North Korean forces several times during the Korean War. The armistice talks, first held at Kaesong, were later transferred to PanmunjomPanmunjom,
officially Panmunjeom
, village, N South Korea. It lies south of the 38th parallel, the military demarcation line that partitions Korea. In the Korean War the truce negotiations, begun at nearby Kaesong, were moved in Oct.
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 (Panmunjeom). Historic landmarks include the tombs of several Korean kings, the old city walls, and the remains of a royal palace from the Koryo period.



a city in North Korea, in the southern part of the Korean People’s Democratic Republic (KPDR), near the 38th parallel. Population, 265,000 (1966). Terminus on the Sinuiju-Pyongyang-Seoul-Pusan main railroad line.

Kaesong is an important center for food processing and light industry. It has factories producing textiles, synthetic fibers, rubber footwear, porcelain ware, and other consumer goods. There is a machine-tool plant, a watch factory, and diversified local industry. Kaesong is the center of the main region for cultivating and processing ginseng in the KPDR. The Songdo Institute, a museum, a theater, and a television station are located in the city. During the American aggression against the KPDR (1950–53), Kaesong was the site of negotiations and the signing of a truce agreement.

Kaesong was the ancient capital of the Korean state from the tenth to 14th centuries. In 918 the palace of the Manwoltae rulers was built there (destroyed in 1361); it was surrounded by a fortified wall having 20 gates, including the Gate of Namda-emun (built in 1393, destroyed in 1950–53, and restored in 1955). Other remaining monuments are the pagodas of the Hyonhwa-sa temple (1018) and the Kaengjaeng-sa temple (1348) and a country estate (second half of the 16th century).


a city in SW North Korea: former capital of Korea (938--1392). Pop.: 621 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
And there must be effective measures to ensure the presence of foreign companies in the Gaeseong complex.
Since a preliminary agreement in August to reopen Gaeseong, the two sides also reached an accord to restart reunions of families separated by the Korean War.
For example, the Raseon and Sinuiju flee trade areas were founded as general flee trade areas to attract general foreign investment; by contrast, the Gaeseong Industrial Complex and other cooperative ventures between North and South Korea, such as the Geumgangsan resort, were economic aspects of a larger political initiative to improve and strengthen North-South relations.
Indeed, all subsequent clusters of special exceptional law--for Sinuiju, Gaeseong, and Geumgangsan--were a response to the shortcomings of the original regulations and laws of the Raseon experiment.
Choi Seung-Hwan, Waenyamyeon: Gaeseong jepum hanguksan injeongkkaji ilgob gogae [If You Ask Why: Seven Hurdles Products from Kaesong must Overcome to be Recognized as "Made in Korea"], HANKYOREH, June 11, 2007, available at http://www.
Tax Regulations for the Gaeseong Industrial Zone art.
Moon and Thomas Falk, K-C chairman, visited the Gaeseong industrial park in February.
The North detained a South Korean employee at the Gaeseong industrial complex Monday for speaking ill of the North Korean system.
South Korean authorities have already concluded that Pyongyang's recent restriction of cross-border traffic to the Gaeseong Industrial Complex was a measure to keep the northerners' exposure to southern elements to a minimum.
On Monday, North Korea decided to suspend tours to Gaeseong, just north of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), and cross-border rail services starting Dec.
At stake is the Gaeseong Industrial Complex, in which 83 South Korean companies are hiring about 34,000 North Korean workers to rack up $460 million worth of industrial production since 2005.
Most notably, the two sides agreed to take measures to enliven the sluggish Gaeseong industrial complex, the symbolic inter-Korean economic project.