At the battle of Gaines's Mill
, one of the fiercest conflicts of the Civil War, with a hundred guns in play, spectators a mile and a half away on the opposite side of the Chickahominy valley heard nothing of what they clearly saw.
Principal battles: Gaines's Mill (near Richmond), Bull Run II (Manassas, Virginia), Antietam (1862); Gettysburg, Chickamauga (1863); Peachtree Creek (northeast of Atlanta), Atlanta, Ezra Church (northwest of Atlanta), Franklin (Tennessee), Nashville (1864).
Johnston (later called Jeff Davis' Own for the many officers it contributed to the Confederacy) (1853-1861); resigned (April 1861) to accept a Confederate lieutenancy; brigadier general and commander of the Texas Brigade (March 1862); won distinction for bravery at Gaines's Mill (June 27), Second Bull Run (August 29-30), and Antietam (September 17); major general (October); fought in Longstreet's corps at Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) where he was badly wounded; lost a leg due to a wound received at Chickamauga (September 19-20); lieutenant general (February 1864); fought in the Georgia campaign under J.
Principal battles: Bull Run I (Manassas, Virginia) (1861); Gaines's Mill (near Richmond), Malvern Hill, South Mountain (Maryland), Antietam (1862); Gettysburg (1863); Petersburg campaign (1864-1865).
Born in Detroit, Michigan (September 14, 1819); graduated from the United States Military Academy (1839); served with distinction in the Mexican War, and was promoted to captain (1852); selected as board member for the revision of light artillery drill and tactics (1856); his artillery unit covered the Union retreat from First Bull Run (July 21, 1861); he was made chief of artillery for the Washington defenses; promoted to colonel and tasked to organize and train the Artillery Reserve of the Army of the Potomac under McClellan (December); made significant contributions at the battles of Gaines's Mill (June 27, 1862) and Malvern Hill (July 1); following the battle of South Mountain (September 14), he was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers, succeeding J.
Army to enter Confederate service (June); commissioned a colonel (July 23); promoted to brigadier general (January 14, 1862); fought with distinction at Williamsburg (May 4-5), Fair Oaks/Seven Pines (near Richmond) (May 31-June 1), and Gaines's Mill
(near Richmond) during the Seven Days' Battles (June 27), where he was badly wounded; out of action for several months, he was promoted to major general (October 10); commanded a division in Gen.
Principal battles: Molino del Rey (near Mexico City), Chapultepec (1847); Mechanicsville (Virginia), Gaines's Mill (near Richmond), Malvern Hill, Bull Run II (Manassas, Virginia) (1862).
Heintzelman's III Corps, he directed the siege of Yorktown (April 4-May 4, 1862); was commander of V Corps (May 18); isolated by McClellan's faulty plan north of the Chickahominy River from the bulk of the Union Army, he withstood the brunt of Lee's attack at Mechanicsville (June 26); from new positions at Gaines's Mill, he held out until nearly dark; when his line was breached, he conducted an orderly and skillful withdrawal (June 27); in the absence of McClellan, he exercised tactical command at the battle of Malvern Hill, where Lee's attacks were repulsed with heavy loss (July 1); was promoted to major general of volunteers and brevet brigadier general of regulars (July 4); came under the command of Gen.
Principal battles: Monterrey (Mexico) (1846); Buena Vista (near Saltillo, Mexico) (1847); Mechanicsville (Virginia), Gaines's Mill
(near Richmond), Bull Run II (Manassas, Virginia), Fredericksburg (1862); Chancellorsville (near Fredericksburg), Gettysburg (1863).