training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Electromechanical gait training with functional electrical stimulation: Case studies in spinal cord injury.
Similar to a previous study on the selection of parameters for treadmill training [18], this study on the GT, a device used for electromechanically assisted gait training, pays particular attention to WS, harness oscillations, and BWS.
Besides reducing labor, an often-used justification for automating gait training is that robots could make the training more consistent.
The Lokomat, a driven gait orthosis, is used for robotic gait training of neurological patients with movement disorders caused by stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or other neurological diseases and injuries.
Effects of long-term gait training using visual cues in an individual with Parkinson disease.
Static and dynamic control over the stance phase is a precursor for gait training with KAFOs.
Prevention and wellness interventions by physical therapists for seniors include identifying elderly who are at high risk for falls; developing exercise programs, gait training, and balance and coordination activities to reduce the risk of falls and fractures from falls in older adults; and developing exercise programs, including weight bearing and weight training, to increase bone mass and density (especially important in older adults with osteoporosis).
Overground gait training with the implanted FES system significantly improved volitional function over baseline prerehabilitation values.
One aim of neurotherapeutic interventions is improving volitional walking ability via modalities such as strength and endurance exercise, balance training, overground gait training (OGT), body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT), and functional electrical stimulation (FES) assisted gait training.
FES-IM gait training provided subjects with a practice pattern that approximated normal movement of the hip, knee, and ankle during the swing phase of gait.
Other therapeutic approaches have been adapted from the original PBWS TM studies to include novel applications of robotically facilitated gait training with and without the TM and also with augmentation by functional electrical stimulation (FES).
The major benefits of training with the Lokomat are that patients can practice intensive gait training early after their injuries in a safe and controlled environment.