Gall Midges


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Related to Gall Midges: Cecidomyiidae

Gall Midges

 

(Cecidomyiidae or Itonididae), a family of mosquito-like insects of the order Diptera. The dimensions of the gall midge are small (1-5 mm), and the nervation of the wings is simple. The larvae, which are narrowed at the ends and are red, orange, or green, carry a chitinous sternal spatula on the ventral side. Larvae of the lower Cecidomyiidae develop in the rotting remains of plants, and those of the higher Cecidomyiidae in the tissues of plants, causing the formation of galls (hence the designation “gall midge”); the species of a gall midge is determined according to the species of its plant host and according to the shape of the gall it forms. Adult gall midges live approximately 20 days, and they do not feed. About 3,500 species are known. Gall midges are found in Europe, Asia, and North America. There are about 500 species in the USSR. Because they develop in the tissues of plants, many gall midges cause serious damage to agriculture and forests. The most dangerous species are the Hessian fly; the millet midge; the wheat midge (Contarinia tritici), which damages the ears of rye and wheat; the rye-stem gnat (Hybolasioptera cerealis), which damages the bundles of stalks in many cultivated cereals; the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora); and the raspberry midge (Lasioptera rubi), which damages horticultural gardens. Protection against gall midges is often very difficult; it is based on agrotechnical and other measures.

A. B. LANGE

References in periodicals archive ?
When DNA from 34 cranberry tipworms and 31 blueberry gall midges was tested in a singleplex PCR assay, the specific primer set CBF and CBR (Table 2) developed for cranberry tipworm produced a 270-bp fragment from cranberry tipworm DNA, and no fragment from blueberry gall midge DNA.
Behavioural, ecological and genetic evidence confirm the occurrence of host-associated differentiation in goldenrod gall midges.
In Florida, there are several overlapping generations of blueberry gall midge each year (Sarzynski & Liburd 2003).
The objectives of this experiment were to determine the developmental threshold and thermal constant for blueberry gall midge pupation, and apply this information to field trap data to estimate optimal times for control measures.
Many gall midges have variously shaped prominences on the head for that purpose, but they are almost always extensions of the antennal bases, not of the vertex.
Six new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) in Australia.
The short empodia of these 3 genera is a departure from the general rule that conifer feeding gall midges have empodia that are appreciably longer than the tarsal claws.
This genus was subsequently widely and incorrectly used in applied entomology to accommodate the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason, 1889) (see Krishnaiah 2004).
Gall parasitism rates were determined by counting emergence holes and classifying them according to whether they were the result of emerging gall midges or parasitoids.
These plant-associated size patterns between populations of the parasitoid are consistent with trends exhibited by the gall midge and, while some of these differences may be due to nutritional differences between the plants, much of the variability can be explained by gall size and larval crowding.