Gall Midges


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Related to Gall Midges: Cecidomyiidae

Gall Midges

 

(Cecidomyiidae or Itonididae), a family of mosquito-like insects of the order Diptera. The dimensions of the gall midge are small (1-5 mm), and the nervation of the wings is simple. The larvae, which are narrowed at the ends and are red, orange, or green, carry a chitinous sternal spatula on the ventral side. Larvae of the lower Cecidomyiidae develop in the rotting remains of plants, and those of the higher Cecidomyiidae in the tissues of plants, causing the formation of galls (hence the designation “gall midge”); the species of a gall midge is determined according to the species of its plant host and according to the shape of the gall it forms. Adult gall midges live approximately 20 days, and they do not feed. About 3,500 species are known. Gall midges are found in Europe, Asia, and North America. There are about 500 species in the USSR. Because they develop in the tissues of plants, many gall midges cause serious damage to agriculture and forests. The most dangerous species are the Hessian fly; the millet midge; the wheat midge (Contarinia tritici), which damages the ears of rye and wheat; the rye-stem gnat (Hybolasioptera cerealis), which damages the bundles of stalks in many cultivated cereals; the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora); and the raspberry midge (Lasioptera rubi), which damages horticultural gardens. Protection against gall midges is often very difficult; it is based on agrotechnical and other measures.

A. B. LANGE

References in periodicals archive ?
Gall midges damage many parts of the plant including the bark, shoots, leaves, pre and post flowering shoot buds, inflorescence buds, axillaries, flowers, newly formed fruit and twigs (Rehman et al.
Among these, gall midges, caterpillars, leafhoppers, thrips, and mites are the most important pests attacking mango (Pena and Mohyuddin, 1997; Pena et al.
For example, introduction of sessile stages or young larval stages of coccinellids, lacewings, and gall midges should be avoided as they are susceptible to IGP.
The gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) fron three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.
Among these, about 20 species of gall midges are known worldwide associated with various parts of mango plant including bark, shoots, leaves, pre and post flowering shoot buds, inflorescence buds, axillaries, flowers, newly formed fruit and twigs (Srivastava, 1998).
Gall parasitism rates were determined by counting emergence holes and classifying them according to whether they were the result of emerging gall midges or parasitoids.
The development of comprehensive management strategy for mango leaf gall midges is urgently needed.
When DNA from 34 cranberry tipworms and 31 blueberry gall midges was tested in a singleplex PCR assay, the specific primer set CBF and CBR (Table 2) developed for cranberry tipworm produced a 270-bp fragment from cranberry tipworm DNA, and no fragment from blueberry gall midge DNA.
Considering the high host specificity of the gall midges, the last ones probably belong to new species, as they are associated with new records of plants.
In Pakistan, a survey for mango gall midges and their natural enemies was initiated for the first time in 2007.