Gallipoli campaign


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Gallipoli campaign,

1915, Allied expedition in World War I for the purpose of gaining control of the DardanellesDardanelles
or Çanakkale Boğazi
, strait, c.40 mi (60 km) long and from 1 to 4 mi (1.6 to 6.4 km) wide, connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separating the Gallipoli peninsula of European Turkey from Asian Turkey.
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 and Bosporus straits, capturing Constantinople, and opening a Black Sea supply route to Russia. The idea of forcing the straits was originally promoted by Winston Churchill, then first lord of the admiralty. After the failure (Mar., 1915) of a British naval force to open the straits, British, Australian, and New Zealand troops landed (Apr. 25) at various points on the east coast of the Gallipoli Peninsula, while a French force landed on the Asian side of the straits. The Turks, under General Liman von SandersLiman von Sanders, Otto
, 1855–1929, German general. In 1913 he was made head of the German military mission to Constantinople to reorganize the army of the Ottoman Empire.
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, had been reinforced, and they put up stubborn resistance, preventing the Allies from making any important gains. Allied cooperation was poor, and there was lack of coordination between land and naval forces that resulted in a premature naval attack without sufficient support from the army. The two-month lag between the navy's arrival at Gallipoli (Feb., 1915) and the arrival of land forces (Apr., 1915) gave the Turkish army ample time to reinforce its troops. By April, the Turks had deployed six times as many troops as they had ready two months earlier. The landing (Aug., 1915) at Suvla on the west coast of the peninsula resulted in severe casualties. After months of costly fighting the Allied commander, Sir Ian Hamilton, was replaced by Sir Charles Munro, and the Allies withdrew from the area on Jan. 9, 1916. The evacuation was brilliantly executed.

Bibliography

See Sir Ian Hamilton, Gallipoli Diary (1920); R. R. James, Gallipoli (1965); L. A. Carlyon, Gallipoli (2001).

References in periodicals archive ?
The 2nd Battalion, the South Wales Borderers, was present throughout the whole Gallipoli campaign and was the only Welsh battalion to take part in the first amphibious assault, planned by Winston Churchill, on April 25, 1915.
The event at the Australian High commission was attended by Director General Artillery Major General Farhan Akhtar, who accompanied the members of 7 Mountain Artillery Brigade, that were attached to the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) in the 1915 Gallipoli campaign.
James Marlow, about to set sail for the Gallipoli campaign of 1916
45) British means in the Gallipoli campaign did not support British strategy.
The tragic Gallipoli campaign has often been discussed in relation to the Australian ideals of mateship, courage and ingenuity in the face of overwhelming odds.
Both of the author's relatives eventually enlisted as ANZACs and fought in the disastrous Gallipoli campaign.
For most, Anzac Day-- Anzac stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps-- marks the landing by Australian and New Zealand soldiers in southern Turkey as part of the Gallipoli campaign of World War I.
London -- Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on Saturday joined world leaders in London to attend the centenary commemoration of the Gallipoli Campaign in the World War One.
THE son of a Welsh soldier injured during the Gallipoli campaign was one of 15 people chosen to represent their ancestors at the centenary services in Turkey.
THE Queen yesterday led the nation in honouring the thousands of Anzac troops who died during the First World War's disastrous Gallipoli campaign at a moving Cenotaph ceremony in London.
The Gallipoli campaign also altered the course for the countries on both sides of the trenches.