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(găl`vəstən), city (1990 pop. 59,070), seat of Galveston co., on Galveston Island, SE Tex.; inc. 1839. The island lies across the entrance to Galveston Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico. Long causeways connect the city with the mainland, HoustonHouston,
city (1990 pop. 1,630,553), seat of Harris co., SE Tex., a deepwater port on the Houston Ship Channel; inc. 1837. Economy

The fourth largest city in the nation and the largest in the entire South and Southwest, Houston is a port of entry; a great
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, and Texas CityTexas City,
city (1990 pop. 40,822), Galveston co., S Tex., on Galveston Bay, opposite the city of Galveston; inc. 1911. It is a railroad terminus and an industrial city and port with huge oil refineries, chemical plants, a large copper smelter, and factories making plastics and
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. Once Texas's largest port, Galveston has been overshadowed by nearby Houston, whose port is linked to the gulf by a canal. Galveston remains a port of entry, however, and is also a destination for cruise ships. Oil refining and shipbuilding are major industries, and the city has metal fabricating, printing, seafood processing, and the manufacture of steel containers. It is also a beach and fishing resort, with its attractions enhanced by pink and white oleanders, bougainvillea, and other subtropical blooms.

The Spanish knew the bay and the island early; it was probably there that Cabeza de VacaCabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez
, c.1490–c.1557, Spanish explorer. Cabeza de Vaca [cow's head] was not actually a surname but a hereditary title in his mother's family; he is frequently called simply Álvar Núñez.
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 was shipwrecked in 1528. Settlement began in the 1830s. The natural port came gradually into its own despite scourges of yellow fever, hurricanes, and the occupation for a few months in 1862 by a small Union force. A 1900 hurricane resulted in thousands of deaths and left the city in ruins. Against future storms an enormous 10-mi (16-km)-long protective seawall was built; however, occasional hurricanes still can cause significant damage, especially on the portions of the island not protected by the seawall. Hurricane Ike (2008) was especially destructive.

Of interest are the Texas Heroes monument, the Rosenberg Library, several old homes, and a 142-acre nature and entertainment complex that includes a 10-story glass pyramid with rain forests and a bamboo forest. A Coast Guard base is in Galveston, as is the Univ. of Texas Medical Branch (including the Galveston National Laboratory) and a campus of Texas A&M Univ (including the Texas Maritime Academy).


See E. Larson, Isaac's Storm (1999).

References in periodicals archive ?
Carnival Liberty and Carnival Breeze will shift to Galveston in 2016, providing consumers with Texas-sized fun on departures from the Lone Star State.
MHP oversees Galveston properties owned by the family of developers, philanthropists and preservationists Cynthia and George Mitchell, including commercial and residential properties located downtown as well as three hotels - Hotel Galvez & Spa, The Tremont House and Harbor House Hotel and Marina at Pier 21.
The public housing program has changed hands, and Galveston has changed leadership multiple times since the storm.
The Naval Air Station Fort Worth Joint Reserve-based Navy Reserve squadron, Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 201 Hunters flew over the ceremony in two F/A-18 Hornets, while an F4F Corsair, F-6F Wildcat, and SBD Dauntless soared overhead in 1940s warplanes from the Lone Star Flight Museum in Galveston.
Marsh Davis, executive director of the Galveston Historical Foundation said: "The images of the devastation of 1900 are always with us.
Early yesterday, Rita was centred about 540 miles east-south-east of Galveston and was moving west at nine mph.
Congress should hang its head in shame, and ought to more closely examine the Galveston County plan and use it as a successful model for the nation.
According to the paper, local investigators said they believe the stickers and cards were being sold for at least $20 a piece, estimating that 1,200 or more vehicles in Galveston County could bear the fake inspection stickers.
T-TOE projects serve Galveston and Harris Counties directly, and provide professional development to early education and primary school teachers across Texas.
The majority of the first Baptists headed for Texas opted to sail to Texas, and they landed at Galveston Island and often spent time in the city before making their way inland.
Over the past three years, Carnival Cruise Lines and Royal Caribbean Cruises have begun offering trips departing from Galveston.
A mid the grasslands and brush of the Texas coastal plain near Galveston, four mammoth monoliths stand as reminders of days gone by.

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