Indo-Gangetic Plain

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Indo-Gangetic Plain

 

an alluvial plain in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, between the Himalayas in the north and the Deccan plateau in the south, approximately 3,000 km long and 250-350 km wide.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain is an alpine piedmont depression, filled with fragmented products from the contiguous Himalayan slopes and covered with old and recent alluvia. The plain has a flat surface, gently descending from a divide (at a height of 270 m) to the Indus and Ganges deltas. The plained relief is broken by protrusions of crystalline rock in the west and scarps of river terraces with heights of up to 60 m divided by ravines. The climate of the eastern part (Ganges and Brahmaputra basins) is subequatorial monsoon. A tropical climate prevails in the western region (Indus basin). Monsoon circulation weakens toward the west, and there is an increase in aridity of climate. Over large areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, average temperatures in July range from 30° to 36°C. Temperatures in January are approximately 20°C (in the northwest, 12°C). Temperature drops to 0°C occur. Annual totals of precipitation decline from 1,500 mm in the southeast to 100-150 mm in the southwest.

The river system is dense. Rivers are deep-water, especially in the east. The largest rivers are the Indus with its tributary the Sutlej (known as the Panjnad in its lower course), which collects waters from the Jhelum, Chenab, Beas, and Ravi rivers (in Punjab); the Ganges with the Jamuna and its powerful left tributaries the Gomati, Ghaghara, and Gandak; and the Brahmaputra. The rivers are characterized by considerable fluctuations in water discharge. Runoffs are greatest in the summer as a result of the impact of monsoons and thawing of mountain snows; destructive flooding is frequent. Alluvial soils with various textures predominate.

An increase in climate aridity from east to west has an effect on the nature of terrain. Thick mangrove and evergreen forests grow in the east in the Ganges and Brahmaputra deltas. Deciduous forests and savannas are found in central plain areas; in the west there are salt marshes and sandy deserts. Practically nothing remains of natural vegetation in central areas and in the east. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the oldest centers of world civilization. Terrains of cultivated savannas prevail (fields of rice, wheat, millet, corn, cotton, and other crops) with separate groves of palms and fruit trees. Two natural regions are identified within its limits, the arid Indus Valley and the moister Ganges Plain.

L. I. KURAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The Buddha wandered from town to town in the Ganges plain, instructing his monks and nuns, giving sermons to the various householders who flocked to hear him speak, answering questions of curious inquirers, and engaging in discussions with people from all classes of society.
Wood takes viewers from the tropical heat of South India to the Ganges plain and from Pakistan and the Khyber Pass out to Turkmenistan, where dramatic new archaeological discoveries are changing people's view of the migrations that have helped make up Indian identity.
Using all the tools available to the historical detective - from DNA to climate science, stories, ancient manuscripts, archaeology and exploration of the living cultures of the sub-continent - he takes viewers fromthe tropical heat of South India to the Ganges plain and from Pakistan and the Khyber Pass out to Turkmenistan.
of Lausanne, Switzerland) offers evidence that Greater Magadha, the eastern part of the Ganges Plain in northern India, displayed an independent and vital culture until close to the beginning of the Common Era, and was not simply a passive receptor of Brahmanism and Jainism.
Why do they put up with it, the seething mass of humanity which stretches from the Ganges Plain to the chawls of Bombay, the heat and dust of Rajasthan to the backwaters of Kerala?
Below, the Ganges Plain is wide, fertile, and among the most densely populated regions of the world.
New Scientist reported in August that in India, many of the half-billion people living on the Ganges plain could be at risk.
But they said even this estimate might be far too low should a great earthquake occur near a major city in the Ganges plain.
Because the weaving industry is scattered across areas as vast as the Ganges plain, it is impossible to certify with any degree of credibility that a given set of carpets has been manufactured without child labor, Harounian said.
In the religion that began on the Ganges plains 500 years ago, Bozica is a living example of the very powerful role women can play as teachers and leaders of Buddhism.