Indo-Gangetic Plain

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Indo-Gangetic Plain

 

an alluvial plain in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, between the Himalayas in the north and the Deccan plateau in the south, approximately 3,000 km long and 250-350 km wide.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain is an alpine piedmont depression, filled with fragmented products from the contiguous Himalayan slopes and covered with old and recent alluvia. The plain has a flat surface, gently descending from a divide (at a height of 270 m) to the Indus and Ganges deltas. The plained relief is broken by protrusions of crystalline rock in the west and scarps of river terraces with heights of up to 60 m divided by ravines. The climate of the eastern part (Ganges and Brahmaputra basins) is subequatorial monsoon. A tropical climate prevails in the western region (Indus basin). Monsoon circulation weakens toward the west, and there is an increase in aridity of climate. Over large areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, average temperatures in July range from 30° to 36°C. Temperatures in January are approximately 20°C (in the northwest, 12°C). Temperature drops to 0°C occur. Annual totals of precipitation decline from 1,500 mm in the southeast to 100-150 mm in the southwest.

The river system is dense. Rivers are deep-water, especially in the east. The largest rivers are the Indus with its tributary the Sutlej (known as the Panjnad in its lower course), which collects waters from the Jhelum, Chenab, Beas, and Ravi rivers (in Punjab); the Ganges with the Jamuna and its powerful left tributaries the Gomati, Ghaghara, and Gandak; and the Brahmaputra. The rivers are characterized by considerable fluctuations in water discharge. Runoffs are greatest in the summer as a result of the impact of monsoons and thawing of mountain snows; destructive flooding is frequent. Alluvial soils with various textures predominate.

An increase in climate aridity from east to west has an effect on the nature of terrain. Thick mangrove and evergreen forests grow in the east in the Ganges and Brahmaputra deltas. Deciduous forests and savannas are found in central plain areas; in the west there are salt marshes and sandy deserts. Practically nothing remains of natural vegetation in central areas and in the east. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the oldest centers of world civilization. Terrains of cultivated savannas prevail (fields of rice, wheat, millet, corn, cotton, and other crops) with separate groves of palms and fruit trees. Two natural regions are identified within its limits, the arid Indus Valley and the moister Ganges Plain.

L. I. KURAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
For the last three days, the atmosphere has stabilised and an easterly wind is prevailing over the whole Indo- Gangetic plain bringing in moisture and dust.
Prof Jean-Philippe Avouac, from the University of Cambridge, told BBC News:"This is a place that needs attention, and if we had an earthquake today, it would be a disaster because of the density of population not just in western Nepal but also in northern India, in the Gangetic plain.
There is a possibility of heavy rainfall throughout West Bengal especially along the Gangetic Plain.
Topographical features range into several units like southern plain area, a part of Gangetic plain, to mountain range to peaks in the north (fig-2).
The 'financial inclusion in urban areas' project, which aims to get the urban poor into the banking fold, will cover the Indo Gangetic plain, where the bank is strongly positioned both in terms of presence and infrastructure availability.
The fertile land and surplus food production of the Gangetic Plain feeds India.
De-industrialisation in Andhra Pradesh primarily affected the export side of the cotton handloom sector, unlike Bengal or the Gangetic plain where all markets were damaged or destroyed.
The flat, southern Terai, part of the Gangetic plain, is only 14% of the land mass, but produces 50% of the nation's crops.
T HE irresistible pull of the Indo- Gangetic plain has transformed the Hindi heartland into a political chessboard over the centuries, but it is the lessons learnt from the rise and fall of these empires that is adding new excitement to the latest battle for Bihar.
Jaina and Brahmanical traditions are barely touched upon, and nothing close to a complete picture of the Pre-Kusana art of northern Indian sites of the Gangetic plain is presented.
III) containing a historical account of the military endeavors and fiscal experiments undertaken by the British East India Company in Bengal and the Gangetic plain, mainly focussing on the policy against the Nawab of Oudh.
Delhi is located in the Indo- Gangetic plain region; because of location, Delhi gets huge loading of dust and aerosols in the air from north- western India.