Indo-Gangetic Plain

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Indo-Gangetic Plain

 

an alluvial plain in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, between the Himalayas in the north and the Deccan plateau in the south, approximately 3,000 km long and 250-350 km wide.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain is an alpine piedmont depression, filled with fragmented products from the contiguous Himalayan slopes and covered with old and recent alluvia. The plain has a flat surface, gently descending from a divide (at a height of 270 m) to the Indus and Ganges deltas. The plained relief is broken by protrusions of crystalline rock in the west and scarps of river terraces with heights of up to 60 m divided by ravines. The climate of the eastern part (Ganges and Brahmaputra basins) is subequatorial monsoon. A tropical climate prevails in the western region (Indus basin). Monsoon circulation weakens toward the west, and there is an increase in aridity of climate. Over large areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, average temperatures in July range from 30° to 36°C. Temperatures in January are approximately 20°C (in the northwest, 12°C). Temperature drops to 0°C occur. Annual totals of precipitation decline from 1,500 mm in the southeast to 100-150 mm in the southwest.

The river system is dense. Rivers are deep-water, especially in the east. The largest rivers are the Indus with its tributary the Sutlej (known as the Panjnad in its lower course), which collects waters from the Jhelum, Chenab, Beas, and Ravi rivers (in Punjab); the Ganges with the Jamuna and its powerful left tributaries the Gomati, Ghaghara, and Gandak; and the Brahmaputra. The rivers are characterized by considerable fluctuations in water discharge. Runoffs are greatest in the summer as a result of the impact of monsoons and thawing of mountain snows; destructive flooding is frequent. Alluvial soils with various textures predominate.

An increase in climate aridity from east to west has an effect on the nature of terrain. Thick mangrove and evergreen forests grow in the east in the Ganges and Brahmaputra deltas. Deciduous forests and savannas are found in central plain areas; in the west there are salt marshes and sandy deserts. Practically nothing remains of natural vegetation in central areas and in the east. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the oldest centers of world civilization. Terrains of cultivated savannas prevail (fields of rice, wheat, millet, corn, cotton, and other crops) with separate groves of palms and fruit trees. Two natural regions are identified within its limits, the arid Indus Valley and the moister Ganges Plain.

L. I. KURAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
By Soudhriti Bhabani in Kolkata The CM said that altogether 12 districts in the Gangetic plains were badly affected by the flood.
The Indian concern is that Nangarhar province sits on the mouth of the Khyber pass, which has been the route to enter into the Indus Valley and the Gangetic plains.
Contract Awarded for undertake a review of the aciar project cse/2011/077 sustainable and resilient farming systems intensification in the eastern gangetic plains in bangladesh and india.
So, why would his successor Zawahiri, wade into something that is strategically untenable and practically impossible to implement in the Gangetic plains unless goaded by some shadowy power?
The Eastern Gangetic Plains is dominated by small farms with many female farmers who have little access to credit, quality seeds, fertilisers, irrigation, or formal extension services.
Moving to a larger scale, the third paper, by Shibani Bose, provides a detailed review (including a tabular database) of the archaeobotanical finds of the Middle Gangetic Plains, noting the presence of a number of significant crops at an early date, including Cannabis sativa in modern day Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
It is widely distributed in sub-Himalayan tract from Punjab eastwards to Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Assam, in the lower hills of the Gangetic plains, Eastern and Western ghats, in central India and in Andamans.
The Buddhist monastic complex at Sanchi in Central India, a recently designated `UNESCO World-Heritage' site, was established during the 3rd century BC as part of the westerly expansion of Buddhism from its base In the middle Gangetic plains.
Deep in the Gangetic plains, Uma grows up with her younger brother Arun and sister Aruna.
In what could spell doom for the farm output for the most fertile regions of the Indo- Gangetic plains and the sustenance of a considerable dependent population' 49 blocks in 27 districts in the five states -- Gujarat' Haryana' Punjab' Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh -- have become overexploited and are likely to be notified by the Central Ground Water Authority ( CGWA).
Overview Objectives : The Eastern Gangetic Plains, which include the Nepal Tarai, Bihar and West Bengal regions, is one of the most densely populated, poverty stricken belts in South Asia.
However, the descriptions in the text appear to be even more congruent with the architectural and archaeological remains in the Gangetic plains.