Garry Kasparov


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Kasparov, Garry

(kəspär`ôf, –ŏf), 1963–, Armenian chess player, b. Azerbaijan (then in the USSR) as Garik Kimovich Wainshtein. He became the world junior champion at the age of 16 and was International Chess Federation (FIDE) champion from 1985 to 1993. His first title match (Sept., 1984–Feb., 1985) against Anatoly KarpovKarpov, Anatoly
, 1951–, Russian chess master. In 1970 he became the world's youngest international grand master. Karpov won (1975) the world championship by default when Bobby Fischer, the titleholder, refused to agree to terms for a match.
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 was the longest in chess history. After 48 games, the psychological and physical strain on Karpov, who was leading but appeared likely to lose, caused chess authorities to end the match inconclusively amid controversy. Kasparov won a rematch six months later, becoming the youngest world champion ever. He defended his title against Karpov in 1986, 1987, and 1990.

In 1993 Kasparov broke with FIDE and formed the rival Professional Chess Association, becoming its champion. In 1996 he became the first world champion to lose to a computer in a game played with time controls, but he won the match. In 1997, however, the computer, IBM's "Deep Blue," defeated him in a rematch (see also artificial intelligenceartificial intelligence
(AI), the use of computers to model the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning. Research in AI is concentrated in some half-dozen areas.
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). In 2000, Kasparov lost a match and his widely recognized status as the world's best chess master to his onetime protégé, the 25-year-old Russian Vladimir KramnikKramnik, Vladimir,
1975–, Russian chess player, b. Tuapse. Kramnik started to play chess at the age of four, and at eleven began studying with both Mikhail Botvinnik and Garry Kasparov.
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, but he subsequently was again regarded as the world's top player. A 2003 match with the chess program "Deep Junior" ended in a tie. One of the game's greatest players, Kasparov retired from professional chess in 2005 and subsequently devoted himself to political activities related to promoting democracy in Russia; he has been assaulted and arrested several times. In 2007 he sought to run for the Russian presidency but was barred because a registered political party had not nominated him; he subsequently withdrew, suggesting that attempts to meet the alternative requirements were frustrated by government interference. Having unsuccessfully sought Latvian citizenship in 2013, he became a Croatian citizen in 2014. He and his family have lived primarily in New York City since 2005. Kasparov's book Winter Is Coming (2015) reflects his fierce oppositiion to Vladimir PutinPutin, Vladimir Vladimirovich
, 1952–, Russian government official and political leader, b. Leningrad (now St. Petersburg). After graduating from the Leningrad State Univ.
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 and accuses the West, and particularly the United States, of appeasement in allowing Putin to remain in power.

Bibliography

See his autobiography, World of Change (1987), and his How Life Imitates Chess (2007).

References in periodicals archive ?
A member of a Russian opposition group led by former chess champion Garry Kasparov has been forcefully put in a psychiatric clinic in what activists said was revenge for critical reporting.
1985 Garry Kasparov became the youngest world chess champion.
Normally the end game King, Rock and Knight vs King and Rock, is a draw, but there is nothing normal when Garry Kasparov is around
The use of supercomputers by commercial businesses has increased dramatically since "Deep Blue," an IBM SP, defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997.
Something to do this summer: Try to beat world chess champion Garry Kasparov at his own game.
Remember that silly little computer that beat the borscht out of Garry Kasparov in a chess match a few months ago?
Glu Mobile, a leading creator and global publisher of mobile entertainment, today announced an agreement to develop and publish Kasparov Chess in partnership with Garry Kasparov, World Champion and the highest-ranked chess player of all time.
The event will feature Garry Kasparov C legendary chess champion, Russian political activist, Putin foe, and the 2014 Atlas Templeton Leadership Fellow.
But for many like myself, I'm sure the modern game of chess has been synonymous with the name Garry Kasparov.
San Francisco, Sept 30 ( ANI ): Fifteen years after Grand Master Garry Kasparov lost to an IBM supercomputer known as Deep Blue, one of its designers has revealed that the move was the result of a bug in its software.
WHILE admitting that Viswanathan Anand had a better record and prospect against Boris Gelfand in the ongoing World Chess Championships, legendary Garry Kasparov reiterated that that these were not the two best players in the world currently.
Garry Kasparov will attend SAP Forum 2011, one of informatics events organized by software provider SAP, on September 23.