Garry Kasparov

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Kasparov, Garry

(kəspär`ôf, –ŏf), 1963–, Armenian chess player, b. Azerbaijan (then in the USSR) as Garik Kimovich Wainshtein. He became the world junior champion at the age of 16 and was International Chess Federation (FIDE) champion from 1985 to 1993. His first title match (Sept., 1984–Feb., 1985) against Anatoly KarpovKarpov, Anatoly
, 1951–, Russian chess master. In 1970 he became the world's youngest international grand master. Karpov won (1975) the world championship by default when Bobby Fischer, the titleholder, refused to agree to terms for a match.
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 was the longest in chess history. After 48 games, the psychological and physical strain on Karpov, who was leading but appeared likely to lose, caused chess authorities to end the match inconclusively amid controversy. Kasparov won a rematch six months later, becoming the youngest world champion ever. He defended his title against Karpov in 1986, 1987, and 1990.

In 1993 Kasparov broke with FIDE and formed the rival Professional Chess Association, becoming its champion. In 1996 he became the first world champion to lose to a computer in a game played with time controls, but he won the match. In 1997, however, the computer, IBM's "Deep Blue," defeated him in a rematch (see also artificial intelligenceartificial intelligence
(AI), the use of computers to model the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning. Research in AI is concentrated in some half-dozen areas.
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). In 2000, Kasparov lost a match and his widely recognized status as the world's best chess master to his onetime protégé, the 25-year-old Russian Vladimir KramnikKramnik, Vladimir,
1975–, Russian chess player, b. Tuapse. Kramnik started to play chess at the age of four, and at eleven began studying with both Mikhail Botvinnik and Garry Kasparov.
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, but he subsequently was again regarded as the world's top player. A 2003 match with the chess program "Deep Junior" ended in a tie. One of the game's greatest players, Kasparov retired from professional chess in 2005 and subsequently devoted himself to political activities related to promoting democracy in Russia; he has been assaulted and arrested several times. In 2007 he sought to run for the Russian presidency but was barred because a registered political party had not nominated him; he subsequently withdrew, suggesting that attempts to meet the alternative requirements were frustrated by government interference. Having unsuccessfully sought Latvian citizenship in 2013, he became a Croatian citizen in 2014. He and his family have lived primarily in New York City since 2005. Kasparov's book Winter Is Coming (2015) reflects his fierce oppositiion to Vladimir PutinPutin, Vladimir Vladimirovich
, 1952–, Russian government official and political leader, b. Leningrad (now St. Petersburg). After graduating from the Leningrad State Univ.
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 and accuses the West, and particularly the United States, of appeasement in allowing Putin to remain in power.


See his autobiography, World of Change (1987), and his How Life Imitates Chess (2007).

References in periodicals archive ?
Thanks to a winning record likely never to be rivaled and to a deep commitment and love for the game of chess, Garry Kasparov is most fitted to share with us the reasons behind his failures and successes and show us how life itself can be seen as a game of strategy.
Y segun Garry Kasparov, Rusia necesita neutralizar la influencia de China en vez de vender a ese pais su armamento sofisticado que no se sabe contra quien se utilizana en un momento dado.
Vikram Jayanti's crackling "Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine" plays on the psychology and paranoia of grandmaster chess in chronicling the 1997 match between Russian world champ Garry Kasparov and IBM's Deep Blue supercomputer.
X3D Technologies, a 3D technology company, has announced that there has been a chess match scheduled between Garry Kasparov and X3D Fritz, a combination of computer chess software and 3D software.
IBM claims that the eServer 655 is the next generation of the IBM supercomputer which was used to beat chess champion Garry Kasparov.
WHEN DEEP BLUE, IBM's monolithic chess-playing computer, faced grandmaster Garry Kasparov in a best-of-six match in 1997, breathless pundits followed the action like it was the Showdown at the A.
That strategy of using "brute force" computing power helped Deep Blue beat world champion Garry Kasparov in 1997.
In 1997, an AI computer named Deep Blue made headlines when it defeated the world's top chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
World chess champion Garry Kasparov took on the whole world Monday, making the first move in an online match against anyone who has access to the Internet and understands the game.
Viewing the brain as a soft computational machine allows an interesting commentary on the recent chess match lost by Garry Kasparov to the IBM computer sometimes called Deeper Blue (because it is an improved version of Deep Blue beaten by Kasparov the previous year).
A lot of adults were upset when Garry Kasparov, considered the world's best chess player, lost his match to IBM's brainiac chess computer Deep Blue last May.
Moreover, DTI boasts a wide catalogue of over 90 games and applications of which many operate with world-class licences, such as Disney (Buena Vista Games), Berlitz(TM), Tetris(TM), Atari, Hasbro, Chess master Garry Kasparov, and Celador International (Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?