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(Ukrainian for “tempering”), the union of Ukrainian proletarian writers. Organized in 1923, Gart brought together prominent Ukrainian writers, including P. Tychina, V. Sosiura, I. Mikitenko, I. Kulik, and V. Blakitnyi. There was a theatrical Gart (a group of important figures in the workers’ theater), as well as a transoceanic Gart, whose members were Ukrainian proletarian writers of the USA and Canada, including I. Irchan, N. Tarnovskii, M. Shatul’skii, and V. Shopinskii. The mixed ideological and artistic aspirations of the union led to its collapse in 1925. In 1927 the All-Ukrainian Union of Proletarian Writers was founded. Its organ was Gart, a journal of literature and criticism, which was published from 1927 through 1932.