Garry Kasparov

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Kasparov, Garry

(kəspär`ôf, –ŏf), 1963–, Armenian chess player, b. Azerbaijan (then in the USSR) as Garik Kimovich Wainshtein. He became the world junior champion at the age of 16 and was International Chess Federation (FIDE) champion from 1985 to 1993. His first title match (Sept., 1984–Feb., 1985) against Anatoly KarpovKarpov, Anatoly
, 1951–, Russian chess master. In 1970 he became the world's youngest international grand master. Karpov won (1975) the world championship by default when Bobby Fischer, the titleholder, refused to agree to terms for a match.
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 was the longest in chess history. After 48 games, the psychological and physical strain on Karpov, who was leading but appeared likely to lose, caused chess authorities to end the match inconclusively amid controversy. Kasparov won a rematch six months later, becoming the youngest world champion ever. He defended his title against Karpov in 1986, 1987, and 1990.

In 1993 Kasparov broke with FIDE and formed the rival Professional Chess Association, becoming its champion. In 1996 he became the first world champion to lose to a computer in a game played with time controls, but he won the match. In 1997, however, the computer, IBM's "Deep Blue," defeated him in a rematch (see also artificial intelligenceartificial intelligence
(AI), the use of computers to model the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning. Research in AI is concentrated in some half-dozen areas.
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). In 2000, Kasparov lost a match and his widely recognized status as the world's best chess master to his onetime protégé, the 25-year-old Russian Vladimir KramnikKramnik, Vladimir,
1975–, Russian chess player, b. Tuapse. Kramnik started to play chess at the age of four, and at eleven began studying with both Mikhail Botvinnik and Garry Kasparov.
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, but he subsequently was again regarded as the world's top player. A 2003 match with the chess program "Deep Junior" ended in a tie. One of the game's greatest players, Kasparov retired from professional chess in 2005 and subsequently devoted himself to political activities related to promoting democracy in Russia; he has been assaulted and arrested several times. In 2007 he sought to run for the Russian presidency but was barred because a registered political party had not nominated him; he subsequently withdrew, suggesting that attempts to meet the alternative requirements were frustrated by government interference. Having unsuccessfully sought Latvian citizenship in 2013, he became a Croatian citizen in 2014. He and his family have lived primarily in New York City since 2005. Kasparov's book Winter Is Coming (2015) reflects his fierce oppositiion to Vladimir PutinPutin, Vladimir Vladimirovich
, 1952–, Russian government official and political leader, b. Leningrad (now St. Petersburg). After graduating from the Leningrad State Univ.
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 and accuses the West, and particularly the United States, of appeasement in allowing Putin to remain in power.

Bibliography

See his autobiography, World of Change (1987), and his How Life Imitates Chess (2007).

References in periodicals archive ?
Despite his crafty moves across the chessboard, Ameet claims he has no burning ambition to become the next Gary Kasparov.
IT WAS on this day in 1985 that Gary Kasparov, then 22 years old, became the youngest world chess champion.
The latest battle of man against machine ended all-square last week as chess supremo Gary Kasparov drew in the second match against the world's most advanced chess-playing computer, Deep Junior.
IG, the official spread book-makers of the World Chess Championships, which starts tomorrow, are offering a full range of markets on the 16-game clash between favourite Gary Kasparov and Vladimir Kramnik.
AND on the subject of sporting prowess - but of a slightly slower nature: am looking forward to meeting up with the great world chess champion Gary Kasparov in October www.
Gary Kasparov, current world champion, is Havey's idol.
At best, Deep Thought's performance against world chess champion Gary Kasparov represents a learning experience.
Pixel has integrated special AI engines into JIVE(TM), enabling users to choose playing against human opponents or against AI's such as the famous Deep Junior(TM) Chess AI, which has challenged Gary Kasparov.
1997: World chess champion Gary Kasparov is defeated by IBM supercomputer Deep Blue.
The computer, a descendant of the IBM Deep Blue machine which defeated chess genius Gary Kasparov, can now make two trillion calculations per second.
Gary Kasparov after many years as the world's highest-graded player has retired from competitions.
What was the name of the computer that beat Gary Kasparov at chess in 1997?