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gas furnace[′gas ‚fər·nəs]
an industrial furnace for the heat treatment of materials and products using gas as a fuel.
There are three groups of gas furnaces, differentiated according to the conditions of heat transfer: high-temperature, medium-temperature, and low-temperature. In high-temperature gas furnaces the temperature of the gases in the working chambers exceeds 1000° C, and heat exchange occurs mainly by radiation. Examples of high-temperature gas furnaces are cupola furnaces, open-hearth furnaces, and furnaces for heating metal (prior to rolling, forging, pressing, and so on). In medium-temperature gas furnaces the temperature in the working chamber is over 650° C, and heat exchange takes place by radiation and convection. So-called heat-treating furnaces, which are designed to heat products for tempering (600°-700° C), hardening (800°-1000° C) and, in some cases, normalizing (850°-1100° C), are examples of medium-temperature gas furnaces. In low-temperature gas furnaces the temperature in the working chamber is 650° C, and heat exchange occurs primarily by convection. Various types of drying chambers (for example, for casting molds and mold cores, painted finished products, and wood that is to be used in packing) are low-temperature gas furnaces. In dryers, injection gas burners are generally located outside the zone of direct action on the products and material. The products obtained from the gas combustion are sent to the drying chamber through distributing devices. Gas furnaces are also classified according to other principles—for example, technical or design.
Highly economical gas furnace performance characteristics are obtained with multistage use of the heat of combustion of the gas. Thus, for example, the products of combustion of high-temperature gas furnaces are supplied to low-temperature furnaces or are used for preheating the furnace fuel supply.
REFERENCESMikheev, V. P. Gazovoe toplivo i ego szhiganie. Leningrad, 1966.
Ispol’zovanie gaza v promyshlennykh pechakh. Leningrad, 1967.
N. I. RIABTSEV
An enclosure in which a gaseous fuel is burned. Domestic heating systems may have gas furnaces. Some industrial power plants are fired with gases that remain as a by-product of other plant processes. Utility power stations may use gas as an alternate fuel to oil or coal, depending on relative cost and availability. Some heating processes are carried out in gas-fired furnaces. Among the gaseous fuels are natural gas, producer gas from coal, blast furnace gas, and liquefied petroleum gases such as propane and butane. See Fuel gas