Gascony

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Gascony

(găs`kənē), Fr. Gascogne, region of SW France. It is now coextensive with the departments of Landes, Gers, and Hautes-Pyrénées and parts of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Lot-et-Garonne, Tarn-et-Garonne, Haute-Garonne, Gironde, and Ariège. The sandy and swampy LandesLandes
, region, SW France. It is a vast, flat, nearly triangular tract of sand and marshland, stretching along the Atlantic coast for more than 100 mi (160 km) between the Adour River and the Médoc region and reaching inland as far as 40 mi (60 km).
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 along the Atlantic coast, the majestic Pyrenees forming the border with Spain, and the hilly ArmagnacArmagnac
, region and former county, SW France, in Gascony, roughly coextensive with Gers dept. Auch is the chief town. Armagnac is famous for the brandy bearing the same name. The counts of Armagnac originated in the 10th cent. as vassals of the dukes of Gascony.
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 region between the Adour and Garonne rivers are the main geographic areas of Gascony. Fishing, stock raising, wine making, brandy distilling, and the tourist trade are the chief industries. The historical capital is AuchAuch
, town (1990 pop. 24,728), capital of Gers dept., SW France, in Gascony, on the Gers River. It is a farm market and commercial center with a variety of manufactures and an important trade in Armagnac brandy, poultry, wine, and grain.
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; other important towns are BayonneBayonne
, town (1990 pop. 41,846), Pyrénées-Atlantiques dept., SW France, in Gascony, on the Adour River near its entrance into the Bay of Biscay. Despite a shifting sandbar at the mouth of the Adour, it is a seaport, exporting sulfur, oil, and natural gas.
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, BiarritzBiarritz
, town (1990 pop. 28,887), Pyrénées-Atlantiques dept., SW France, on the Bay of Biscay near the Spanish border. An ancient fishing village, it was a favorite vacation spot of Napoleon III and Empress Eugénie, whose visits sparked the growth of
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, Luchon (see Bagnères-de-LuchonBagnères-de-Luchon
, town, Haute-Garonne dept., S France, at the foot of the Maladetta Mts. It is an important resort in the Pyrenees. Its warm sulfur springs have been known since Roman times.
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), TarbesTarbes
, city (1990 pop. 50,228), capital of Hautes-Pyrénées dept., SW France, on the Adour River. It is an industrial, commercial, and tourist center in a cattle- and horse-raising area.
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, DaxDax
, town (1990 pop. 20,119), Landes dept., SW France, in Gascony, on the Adour River. It has long been famous for its hot mineral springs. An aviation school is in the town.
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, and LourdesLourdes
, town (1990 pop. 16,581), Hautes-Pyrénées dept., SW France, at the foot of the Pyrénées. It is famous for its Roman Catholic shrine where Our Lady of Lourdes (Feast: Feb. 11) is believed to have repeatedly appeared (1858) to St. Bernadette.
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. Under the Romans the region was known first as Aquitania Propria and later as Novempopulana or Aquitania Tertia and was inhabited by the Vascones, or BasquesBasques
, people of N Spain and SW France. There are about 2 million Basques in the three Basque provs. and Navarre, Spain; some 250,000 in Labourd, Soule, and Lower Navarre, France; and communities of various sizes in Central and South America and other parts of the world.
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, who since prehistoric times had lived in the lands N and S of the Pyrenees. Except in the region SW of the Adour, where the Basque language and customs have persisted to the present, Latin soon became the tongue of Novempopulana. Conquered by the Visigoths (5th cent.) and by the Franks (6th cent.), Novempopulana was invaded in turn by the Basque-speaking peoples (the Vascones) from S of the Pyrenees, who in 601 set up the duchy of Vasconia or Gascony. The duchy's borders fluctuated as the Basques fought the Visigoths, the Franks, and the Arabs throughout the MerovingianMerovingians,
dynasty of Frankish kings, descended, according to tradition, from Merovech, chief of the Salian Franks, whose son was Childeric I and whose grandson was Clovis I, the founder of the Frankish monarchy.
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 period. The duchy kept an independent spirit throughout its history, even when Charlemagne forced the duke of Gascony to recognize Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine, as his suzerain (9th cent.). Invaded by Norsemen early in the 9th cent., Gascony fell into anarchy and split up into small counties and seigniories. In 1052, with the exception of lower NavarreNavarre
, Span. Navarra , province (1990 pop. 527,318), N Spain, bordering on France, between the W Pyrenees and the Ebro River. Pamplona is the capital. Land and Economy

Navarre province forms the autonomous region of Navarra.
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 and BéarnBéarn
, former province, SW France, in the Pyrenees. It is now the inland part of Pyrénées-Atlantiques dept. Its valleys are well cultivated, and cattle are bred. Pau replaced Orthez as the capital in the 15th cent.
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, which continued separate, the remainder of Gascony passed to the duchy of AquitaineAquitaine
, Lat. Aquitania, former duchy and kingdom in SW France. Julius Caesar conquered the Aquitani, an Iberian people of SW Gaul, in 56 B.C. The province that he created occupied the territory between the Garonne River and the Pyrenees; under Roman rule it was
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. Gascony shared the fate of Aquitaine, fell under English control in 1154, and was a major battleground in the Hundred Years War (1337–1453); it was completely recovered by France in 1453. Gascony was then not a political unit; most of its territory was held by the counts of Armagnac, the counts of FoixFoix
, town (1990 pop. 10,466), capital of Ariège dept., S France, on the Ariège River at the foot of the Pyrenees. It is an administrative and tourist center with some small industry.
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, and the lords of AlbretAlbret
, former duchy, SW France, in the Landes of Gascony. The powerful lords of Albret became kings of Navarre by the marriage (1484) of Jean d'Albret with Catherine de Foix, queen of Navarre, who also brought him Foix and Béarn.
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. All these lands passed, through marriage and inheritance, to Henry of Navarre, who became king of France as Henry IV in 1589. The lands were united with the royal domain in 1607. The resulting province of Guienne and Gascony was divided under the jurisdictions of the parlements of Bordeaux and of Toulouse.

Gascony

a former province of SW France
References in periodicals archive ?
Oddbins is selling MJ Janeil Gros Manseng Sauvignon Blanc Cotes de Gascogne 2013 for PS7.
Pour sa part, le president du parc naturel regional de Landes de Gascogne, Vincent Nuchy s'est felicite des relations seculaires entre la France et le Maroc, se disant fier du niveau de la cooperation avec la province d'El Hajeb.
The Gascogne version ranges from 23-27 inches at the withers.
Major organization : COMPAGNIE D~AMEeNAGEMENT DES CEoTEAUX DE GASCOGNE
The wine list is well thought out with a very drinkable white Cotes De Gascogne at a reasonable pounds 12 a bottle.
Guyenne et Gascogne has resisted the still difficult general environment well, with consolidated half-year earnings down by only -4.
Major organization : COMPAGNIE D~AMENAGEMENT DES COTEAUX DE GASCOGNE
The England coach, already without Alan Shearer, will take Gascogne to Georgia for the match on November 9 and then decide whether to keep him in the team.
Address : Ompagnie damenagement des coteaux de Gascogne
From Monsieur Yves Grassa, who brought fresh, lively Cotes du Gascogne to our attention.
From the winery that started the crisp, white Cotes de Gascogne trend, Monsieur Grassa's French fancies are light and honeyed with green apple tartness.
Domaine Garras Vin de Pays des Cotes de Gascogne 1996 (pounds 3.