gastric juice

(redirected from Gastric fluid)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.
Related to Gastric fluid: Gastric juices

gastric juice,

thin, strongly acidic (pH varying from 1 to 3), almost colorless liquid secreted by the glands in the lining of the stomach. Its essential constituents are the digestive enzymes pepsinpepsin,
enzyme produced in the mucosal lining of the stomach that acts to degrade protein. Pepsin is one of three principal protein-degrading, or proteolytic, enzymes in the digestive system, the other two being chymotrypsin and trypsin.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and rennin (see rennetrennet,
substance containing rennin, an enzyme having the property of clotting, or curdling, milk. It is used in the making of cheese and junket. Rennet is obtained from the stomachs of young mammals living on milk, especially from the inner lining of the fourth, or true,
..... Click the link for more information.
), hydrochloric acid, and mucus. Pepsin converts proteins into simpler, more easily absorbed substances; it is aided in this by hydrochloric acid, which provides the acid environment in which pepsin is most effective. Rennin aids the digestion of milk proteins. Mucus secreted by the gastric glands helps protect the stomach lining from the action of gastric juice. Gastric secretion is stimulated by a number of hormones and chemical substances, by the presence of food in the stomach, and by a number of psychological factors, such as the smell of a favorite food. A decrease or total absence of gastric juice secretion may be a congenital abnormality or a concomitant of advanced age. Certain cells of the stomach lining secrete a substance known as intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12; absence of this substance results in pernicious anemia, or B12 deficiency (see vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
..... Click the link for more information.

Gastric Juice


a complex digestive juice secreted by various cells of the gastric mucosa; it is a colorless, slightly opalescent fluid. It contains the following enzymes: pro-teases (pepsins, rennin, gastricsin, and gelatinase), which accomplish the initial stages of protein decomposition; and a small quantity of lipase, which mainly decomposes emulsified fats. It also contains hydrochloric acid (concentration in humans is 0.4-0.5 percent) and mucus.

Hydrochloric acid activates enzymes and facilitates the decomposition of proteins, causing their denaturation and saturation; it conditions the bactericidal properties of gastric juice (inhibits the development of putrefactive processes in the stomach), and stimulates the secretion of gastric hormones. Hydrochloric acid in gastric juice is partly in a free state and partly bound (with proteins). The total acidity of gastric juice in man after a test breakfast is 40-60 conventional units; free acidity is 20-40 units. In some dysfunctions of the stomach, the hydrochloric-acid content of the gastric juice may increase or decrease to the point of complete absence (so-called achylia). Mucus, whose composition includes mucoproteins, protects the walls of the stomach from mechanical and chemical irritants. Gastric juice contains Castle’s intrinsic factor, which facilitates absorption of vitamin B12.

The secretion of gastric juice is determined in the first, compound-reflex phase of secretion by the appearance, odor, and taste of food; in the second, neurohumoral, phase, it is determined by chemical and mechanical stimuli to the gastric mucosa. Up to two liters of gastric juice is secreted by a human being every 24 hours. The quantity, composition, and properties of gastric juice vary according to the type of food in the stomach, and also when there are diseases of the stomach, intestine, or liver. Gastric juice is tested in humans by means of probing the stomach after the application of various natural and pharmacological stimuli; in animals it is tested by means of an artificially formed isolated stomach, according to a method perfected by I. P. Pavlov. Gastric juice obtained from animals is used internally in treating some diseases of the digestive organs.


gastric juice

[′gas·trik ‚jüs]
The digestive fluid secreted by gastric glands; contains gastric acid and enzymes.

gastric juice

a digestive fluid secreted by the stomach, containing hydrochloric acid, pepsin, rennin, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Comparison of pirenzepine, ranitidine, and pirenzepine-ranitidine combination for reducing preoperative gastric fluid acidity and volume in children.
Here we discuss the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) assay and its usefulness in estimating the allergenic risk of dietary proteins.
These polymers exhibit resistance to gastric fluids yet are readily soluble or permeable in intestinal fluid.
Although the median serum, stool, and gastric fluid sample collection times were within 4 days of illness onset, and all muktuk samples tested positive for toxin type E, only 1 of the 13 clinical samples from case-patients yielded positive results for toxin with the standard mouse bioassay.
He also obtained samples of his own gastric fluid by regurgitating on an empty stomach.
Key words: allergenicity, protein stability, protein structure, proteolytic digestion, safety assessment, sequence homology, simulated gastric fluid.
100mg microspheres were placed in 25ml simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.
Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a chronic, often progressive disease resulting from a weak lower esophageal sphincter that allows harmful gastric fluid to reflux into the esophagus, resulting in both pain and injury to the esophageal lining.
After 4h of surgery, rats were sacrificed and lesions scored and gastric fluid was collected and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 min.
Fifty beads were placed in the dissolution vessel containing 500 ml of simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.
Among the methods used currently as part of such assessments are consideration of structural similarity to, or amino acid sequence homology with, known human allergens; whether there exists immunologic cross-reactivity with known allergens; and measurement of resistance to proteolytic digestion in a simulated gastric fluid.