gastric juice

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gastric juice,

thin, strongly acidic (pH varying from 1 to 3), almost colorless liquid secreted by the glands in the lining of the stomach. Its essential constituents are the digestive enzymes pepsinpepsin,
enzyme produced in the mucosal lining of the stomach that acts to degrade protein. Pepsin is one of three principal protein-degrading, or proteolytic, enzymes in the digestive system, the other two being chymotrypsin and trypsin.
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 and rennin (see rennetrennet,
substance containing rennin, an enzyme having the property of clotting, or curdling, milk. It is used in the making of cheese and junket. Rennet is obtained from the stomachs of young mammals living on milk, especially from the inner lining of the fourth, or true,
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), hydrochloric acid, and mucus. Pepsin converts proteins into simpler, more easily absorbed substances; it is aided in this by hydrochloric acid, which provides the acid environment in which pepsin is most effective. Rennin aids the digestion of milk proteins. Mucus secreted by the gastric glands helps protect the stomach lining from the action of gastric juice. Gastric secretion is stimulated by a number of hormones and chemical substances, by the presence of food in the stomach, and by a number of psychological factors, such as the smell of a favorite food. A decrease or total absence of gastric juice secretion may be a congenital abnormality or a concomitant of advanced age. Certain cells of the stomach lining secrete a substance known as intrinsic factor, which is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12; absence of this substance results in pernicious anemia, or B12 deficiency (see vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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Gastric Juice


a complex digestive juice secreted by various cells of the gastric mucosa; it is a colorless, slightly opalescent fluid. It contains the following enzymes: pro-teases (pepsins, rennin, gastricsin, and gelatinase), which accomplish the initial stages of protein decomposition; and a small quantity of lipase, which mainly decomposes emulsified fats. It also contains hydrochloric acid (concentration in humans is 0.4-0.5 percent) and mucus.

Hydrochloric acid activates enzymes and facilitates the decomposition of proteins, causing their denaturation and saturation; it conditions the bactericidal properties of gastric juice (inhibits the development of putrefactive processes in the stomach), and stimulates the secretion of gastric hormones. Hydrochloric acid in gastric juice is partly in a free state and partly bound (with proteins). The total acidity of gastric juice in man after a test breakfast is 40-60 conventional units; free acidity is 20-40 units. In some dysfunctions of the stomach, the hydrochloric-acid content of the gastric juice may increase or decrease to the point of complete absence (so-called achylia). Mucus, whose composition includes mucoproteins, protects the walls of the stomach from mechanical and chemical irritants. Gastric juice contains Castle’s intrinsic factor, which facilitates absorption of vitamin B12.

The secretion of gastric juice is determined in the first, compound-reflex phase of secretion by the appearance, odor, and taste of food; in the second, neurohumoral, phase, it is determined by chemical and mechanical stimuli to the gastric mucosa. Up to two liters of gastric juice is secreted by a human being every 24 hours. The quantity, composition, and properties of gastric juice vary according to the type of food in the stomach, and also when there are diseases of the stomach, intestine, or liver. Gastric juice is tested in humans by means of probing the stomach after the application of various natural and pharmacological stimuli; in animals it is tested by means of an artificially formed isolated stomach, according to a method perfected by I. P. Pavlov. Gastric juice obtained from animals is used internally in treating some diseases of the digestive organs.


gastric juice

[′gas·trik ‚jüs]
The digestive fluid secreted by gastric glands; contains gastric acid and enzymes.

gastric juice

a digestive fluid secreted by the stomach, containing hydrochloric acid, pepsin, rennin, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is true, that by the agency of gastric juice on food out of the body, a change very similar to chymification can be effected on it; but when we remember that chyme, or the result of real digestion, is essentially the same in its elementary or component principles, whatever be the kind of food from which it is formed, and that as yet we are acquainted with no purely chymical agent which, applied to different substances, gives rise to the same uniform product, we shall be more willing to believe that chymification is neither a purely mechanical nor a purely chymical operation; but the result of a vital process, to which both mechanical and chymical forces contribute, and which no action or combination of inanimate matter can either exactly imitate or supersede.
During the second operation, it was discovered that Mrs Williams' stomach lining was pierced and gastric juices had leaked, causing peritonitis.
Gastric juices react to a sense of anticipation that builds up.
If the lining of the gut is broken it is left open to damage from acid gastric juices.
Destruction of the cells producing hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, respectively, results in hypochiorhydria and a reduction in pepsin activity within gastric juices and may lead to pernicious or iron deficiency anemia.
Since my tummy is confused by this pre-dawn eating, it releases buckets of gastric juices that quickly devour my food and send the calories scurrying everywhere to give me energy.
Once food gets into the stomach, it is mixed with gastric juices and becomes a soupy liquid called chyme.
This has an autumnal fullness and richness to its texture which will leave you feeling satisfied and get the gastric juices running.
Little did that matter to Lavin's gastric juices, which have been bubbling away ever since he heard from reporters on Tuesday that athletic director Peter Dalis has been chatting with Pitino, the Boston Celtics coach until he resigned Monday.
In their absence, the production of the mucous that protects the stomach lining from acidic gastric juices and other harsh chemicals in the digestive system is inhibited, and the tissue is left defenseless.
And the conversation kept the gastric juices flowing, as it flitted from single malt cocktails, which I am not a great fan of, to Henry Ford's practice of taking prospective
The conversation flowed as freely as the gastric juices.