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(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.



The escape of blood from the vascular system.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
BLEED: a classification tool to predict outcomes in patients with acute upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
This patient represents the only known case of primary splenic lymphoma presenting as significant upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage before institution of chemotherapy.
The most commonly reported adverse reactions (all grades; grade 3/4) occurring in[greater than or equal to]5% of patients receiving CYRAMZA plus FOLFIRI and[greater than or equal to]2% higher than placebo plus FOLFIRI in study 4 were diarrhea (60% vs 51%; 11% vs 10%), neutropenia (59% vs 46%; 38% vs 23%), decreased appetite (37% vs 27%; 2% vs 2%), epistaxis (33% vs 15%; 0% vs 0%), stomatitis (31% vs 21%; 4% vs 2%), thrombocytopenia (28% vs 14%; 3% vs <1%), hypertension (26% vs 9%; 11% vs 3%), peripheral edema (20% vs 9%; <1% vs 0%), proteinuria (17% vs 5%; 3% vs <1%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (13% vs 5%; 1% vs <1%), gastrointestinal hemorrhage events (12% vs 7%; 2% vs 1%), hypoalbuminemia (6% vs 2%; 1% vs 0%).
Hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by direct tumor invasion of stomach.
Dieulafoy's lesion-like bleeding: an underrecognized cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with advanced liver disease.
After these exclusions, stroke and gastrointestinal hemorrhage are chosen as the reference conditions for each of the PHQID conditions.
Abstract: To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.
As expected, the anti-clotting drug, Plavix, has its own complications: it promotes bleeding, easy bruising and may mean a gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
And the risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage or hemorrhagic stroke caused by aspirin is likely to outweigh the benefit of fewer colorectal cancers.
activist, of a gastrointestinal hemorrhage likely caused by an ulcer, May 5.
Similar studies are currently under way at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center to assist in the care of patients with pneumonia, congestive heart failure, total hip replacement, hip fracture, total knee replacement, and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, stroke, TURD, COPD, lumbar laminectomy, and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
Prespecified gastrointestinal adverse events, including stomach/abdominal pain, gastroduodenal ulcer, reflux esophagitis, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, were also increased in patients on aspirin, according to results of the late-breaking study, simultaneously published online in "AMA (doi:10.

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