Gatchina


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Gatchina

(gä`chēnə), city (1989 pop. 80,000), NW European Russia. The city developed around the imperial palace (built 1766–81), which was used as a summer residence by Paul I in the 18th cent. and was a favorite residence of the Russian czars. The palace (now a museum) was looted and damaged by the Germans in World War II and has been partly restored. The Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute is in Gatchina.

Gatchina

 

a city in Leningrad Oblast, RSFSR. Railroad junction 45 km southwest of Leningrad on the Leningrad-Pskov line. Population, 63,000 (1970).

Gatchina was first mentioned in 1499 under the name of Khotchino as a Novgorod possession. Later, it belonged to Livonia and Sweden. After 1721 it was returned to Russia. In the 1720’s, Gatchina belonged to the sister of Peter I the Great, Natalia Alekseevna, and from the mid-1760’s it belonged to G. G. Orlov. In 1783 it was bought by Catherine II the Great, who made a gift of it to the heir apparent, Pavel. In 1796, Pavel I conferred on his residence the status of a city.

Gatchina includes an 18th-century palace and a park ensemble. The main building of the complex is a palace in early classical style (1766-81, designed by the architect A. Rinaldi, enlarged during 1793-97 by the architect V. F. Brenna, and rebuilt during 1845-51 by the architect R. I. Kuz’min). It is a three-story rectangular building with two pentahedral towers and two side structures. The interior of the palace was decorated by Russian masters between 1760 and 1790 from plans drawn up by the architects A. Rinaldi and V. F. Brenna. The Gatchina parks are picturesquely designed. (They are the Dvortsovy, the Prioratskii, and the Zverinets parks, with a total area of about 167 hectares.) The three parks have numerous bridges (including the Kammenyi and L’vinyi), terraces, and pavilions (Orel, Venera, Na Ostrove Liubvi, Ferma, and Ptichnik). There are also the Berezovie and Admiralteiskie gates and other structures, built at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century according to the plans of architects such as V. G. Brenna and A. D. Zakharov. The parks with their various structures are among the best examples of landscape architecture in Russia. The rammed-earth Prioratskii Palace, which is reminiscent of a medieval castle, was constructed using an unusual technique during 1798-99 by the architect N. A. L’vov. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) the palace and parks were destroyed. Immediately after the war their restoration was begun. Industrial enterprises in the town were rebuilt, including a plant producing equipment for cellulose-paper enterprises, a machine-building plant, and a furniture factory. Gatchina is the site of a proton synchrocyclotron. It also has a pedagogical school.

REFERENCES

Ruzov, L. V., and Iu. N. lablochkin. Gatchina. Leningrad, 1959.
Shvarts, V. Prigorody Leningrada. [Leningrad-Moscow, 1961.]
References in periodicals archive ?
In Gatchina and Dubna, projects of modern megascience class research facilities are already being implemented.
Los castillos y palacios en Rusia fueron erigidos mayoritariamente a partir del siglo XIX y muchos de ellos gravitaron en torno a San Petersburgo: el de Peterhof, residencia de los zares, en la ciudad de Petrodvorets; el de Verano y el de Catalina, en la ciudad de Tsarskoye Selo, ahora ciudad de Pushkin; el de Sheremetev, conocido como La Casa de las Fuentes, creado por el arquitecto italiano Bartolomeo Rastrelli; el de Gatchina, residencia del favorito de Catalina la Grande, el conde Grigori Orlov; la residencia real de Oranienbaum, asi como el castillo Pavlovsk y el Palacio de Invierno, en donde se encuentra el Museo del Hermitage, que alberga los tesoros artisticos de la emperatriz, considerados entonces como la mayor coleccion de arte privada.
These sequestered miniature wonders include a rotating globe, a replica of Gatchina Palace, a four-leaf clover, a gold watch, Peter the Great's monument on the Neva River, miniature portraits, a mechanical swan, an 18th century carriage that took 14 months to complete, and a jeweled elephant automaton (rediscovered in 2015 and reunited with its egg in 2017).
The new tsar, Alexander III, took the precaution of postponing his coronation and leaving the capital for Gatchina, a fortress-like palace thirty miles from St.
Spiridovich was apparently the first official in Russia to propose creating a permanent office to scrutinize the identity of people living and traveling in the suburban towns (and in their vicinity) where the emperor maintained residences--Tsarskoe Selo, Novyi Petergof, Gatchina, and Pavlovsk.
On 30 March at Gatchina, Witte had to finish reading Vyshnegradskii's report to the tsar for him.
The accident took place at about 14:10 Moscow time near the station Voiskovitsy in Gatchina district.
There is nothing left of thousands of country houses round Leningrad, Peterhof is wiped out, and little more than a heap of ruins is left of Tsarskoye Selo, Pavlosk and Gatchina .
There were eggs depicting the imperial yacht, the Uspensky Cathedral, the Gatchina Palace and, during the time of the war, the Red Cross and the military.
The Imperial Gatchina Palace Egg, given to the dowager empress in 1901, opens up to reveal a golden replica of a palace, with tiny cannons, lamp posts and trees on the palace grounds.