The Standard Model suggests the forces experienced between charged electrons and protons and between elementary particles of quarks and leptons is due to the rapid exchange of "messenger particles," the gauge bosons
5 on the logarithmic scale and it becomes clear that this range and as well as the masses of the electron, muon, pion and gauge bosons are in proximity of the zeros of the above considered sine function (see Figure 4).
2] and included additionally the gauge bosons due to their special importance (78 particles altogether).
The observable mass distributions of baryons, mesons, leptons and gauge bosons
are connected by the model scaling exponent 2/3.
The Weak and the Strong geometric coupling constant strength, defined as the probability for a particle to emit and later absorb a SU(2), SU(3) gauge boson
, can both be obtained by using the main formula derived from Geometric Probability (as ratios of dimensionless measures/volumes) after one identifies the suitable homogeneous domains and their Shilov boundaries to work with.