Burkholder, "Novel

Gaussian beam method for the rapid analysis of large reflector antennas," IEEE Trans.

Supposing the direction of propagation be in the positive Z orientation (shown in Figure 1), the fundamental

Gaussian Beam mode of E-field distribution with the paraxial approximation in rectangular coordinates (two dimension) is shown in Equation (2):

Cerny, "Near field measurement of

Gaussian beam behind dielectric lens," 17th International Conference in Radioelektronika, 1-4, Apr.

0]/[lambda] is the Rayleigh length of the

Gaussian beam, [lambda] being the wavelength and [w.

Elegant Laguerre-Gauss beams as a new tool for describing axisymmetric flattened

Gaussian beams," J.

Baykal and Eyyubogl [25] developed the scintillation index formula for a flat-topped

Gaussian beam source on axis in turbulence.

Goldsmith, "Quasi-optical System:

Gaussian Beam Quasi-optical Propagation and Applications," IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1997.

Vistec Lithography develops, manufactures, and sells electron-beam lithography equipment based on

Gaussian Beam technology.

The surface is illuminated at 30 degrees by a

Gaussian beam with a wavelength [lambda] = 0.

Resonance frequency is obtained from (7) and

Gaussian beam theory [1, 2]

A number of instruments measure laser-beam characteristics such as the deviation from an ideal bell-shaped or

Gaussian beam.

33] that the propagation dynamic of a HzGB is basically governed by a parameter, 7, that is the ratio between the half-aperture angle of the conical surface traced by the

Gaussian beam propagation axes that superimposes to forming the HzGB [35] and the diffraction angle of such Gaussian constituents.