Burkholder, "Novel Gaussian beam
method for the rapid analysis of large reflector antennas," IEEE Trans.
Supposing the direction of propagation be in the positive Z orientation (shown in Figure 1), the fundamental Gaussian Beam
mode of E-field distribution with the paraxial approximation in rectangular coordinates (two dimension) is shown in Equation (2):
Cerny, "Near field measurement of Gaussian beam
behind dielectric lens," 17th International Conference in Radioelektronika, 1-4, Apr.
0]/[lambda] is the Rayleigh length of the Gaussian beam
, [lambda] being the wavelength and [w.
Elegant Laguerre-Gauss beams as a new tool for describing axisymmetric flattened Gaussian beams
Baykal and Eyyubogl  developed the scintillation index formula for a flat-topped Gaussian beam
source on axis in turbulence.
Goldsmith, "Quasi-optical System: Gaussian Beam
Quasi-optical Propagation and Applications," IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1997.
Vistec Lithography develops, manufactures, and sells electron-beam lithography equipment based on Gaussian Beam
The surface is illuminated at 30 degrees by a Gaussian beam
with a wavelength [lambda] = 0.
Resonance frequency is obtained from (7) and Gaussian beam
theory [1, 2]
A number of instruments measure laser-beam characteristics such as the deviation from an ideal bell-shaped or Gaussian beam
33] that the propagation dynamic of a HzGB is basically governed by a parameter, 7, that is the ratio between the half-aperture angle of the conical surface traced by the Gaussian beam
propagation axes that superimposes to forming the HzGB  and the diffraction angle of such Gaussian constituents.