Ghazal

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Ghazal

 

a monorhymed lyrical poem, consisting usually of five to 12 bayt couplets; common in the poetry of the Near and Middle East and in Southeast Asia. As a genre, the ghazal developed from popular lyrical song, probably in the seventh century, and took its final shape in the 13th and 14th centuries. Only the second misra (hemistich) rhymes, except in the first bayt (matla) in which both misras rhyme. The rhyming pattern is aa, ba, ca, da. In the last bayt (maqta) the tahallus (pseudonym of the author) must be mentioned. As a rule, every bayt of the ghazal contains a completed thought with a self-contained meaning. Outstanding Persian and Tadjik poets (such as Saadi, Hafiz, Kamal, and later Jami), as well as Uzbek (Alisher Navoi) and Azerbaijani (Nizami) poets, have composed classical examples of the ghazal. Certain European poets who turned to Oriental themes used the ghazal form, including Goethe, Bodenstedt, and, in Russia, V. Briusov.

REFERENCES

Bertel’s, E. E. Persidskaia poeziia v Bukhare v X veke. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Braginskii, I. S. “O vozniknovenii gazeli v tadzhikskoi i persidskoi literature.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1958, no. 2.
Mirzoev, A. M. Rudaki i razvitie gazeli v X-XV vv. Stalinabad, 1958.

N. B. KONDYREVA


Ghazal

 

(Bahr al-Ghazal), a river in the southwestern Sudan, a left tributary of the White Nile. The Bahr al-Ghazal is formed by the confluence of the Bahr al-Arab and the Jur River at the town of Ghabat al-Arab. Measured from the place of confluence, it is approximately 240 km long. It flows through vast swamps. Düring the summer rains navigation is possible up to the town of Waw on the Jur River. After the water level falls, the Bahr al-Ghazal is navigable from the place of confluence of its headstreams.

References in periodicals archive ?
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She said that Mehdi Hassan brought a vast transformation in Gazal singing, and it is unlikely that a singer of his caliber may born again and could substitute him.
The costume designer is Gazal Erten and the stage designer is Talat Ayhan.
George is survived by his wife Pearl (Paloulian) of 64 years, and three children; Carol Arakelian of Falmouth MA, Joyce Mirow wife of Peter Mirow, and Michael Arakelian husband to Joan (Tateosian), both of Worcester; four grandchildren Kimberly Gazal and Michael, Julie, and Alex Arakelian; three extended grandchildren Matthew, Joseph husband of Christina, and Johnathan Mirow; his sister, Alice Lacey of Texas; his two sister-in laws, Bernice Kachadorian and June Bogoian, brother-in-law Robert Ghiz; and many endearing nieces, nephews, great nieces and nephews and great-grandchildren.
Klatsky also serves as the lead independent director of Gazal Corp.
30 -- Bonfire + Light music + Gazal Program + Fashion Show + Antakshari + Gifts and chocolates Buffet lunches, Shuttle service for temple visit, Gala Dinner and much more are part of Nidhivan Hotel at Vrindavan's New Year plans welcoming 2014 for the pious with Lord Krishna and Radha in their minds.
Film- maker Subhash Ghai, gazal singer Talat Aziz, Hema Malini and Simi Garewal were seen at the event too.
16-year old Gazal is another girl who has experienced a two-month long marriage with a Saudi man.