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a monorhymed lyrical poem, consisting usually of five to 12 bayt couplets; common in the poetry of the Near and Middle East and in Southeast Asia. As a genre, the ghazal developed from popular lyrical song, probably in the seventh century, and took its final shape in the 13th and 14th centuries. Only the second misra (hemistich) rhymes, except in the first bayt (matla) in which both misras rhyme. The rhyming pattern is aa, ba, ca, da. In the last bayt (maqta) the tahallus (pseudonym of the author) must be mentioned. As a rule, every bayt of the ghazal contains a completed thought with a self-contained meaning. Outstanding Persian and Tadjik poets (such as Saadi, Hafiz, Kamal, and later Jami), as well as Uzbek (Alisher Navoi) and Azerbaijani (Nizami) poets, have composed classical examples of the ghazal. Certain European poets who turned to Oriental themes used the ghazal form, including Goethe, Bodenstedt, and, in Russia, V. Briusov.


Bertel’s, E. E. Persidskaia poeziia v Bukhare v X veke. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Braginskii, I. S. “O vozniknovenii gazeli v tadzhikskoi i persidskoi literature.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1958, no. 2.
Mirzoev, A. M. Rudaki i razvitie gazeli v X-XV vv. Stalinabad, 1958.




(Bahr al-Ghazal), a river in the southwestern Sudan, a left tributary of the White Nile. The Bahr al-Ghazal is formed by the confluence of the Bahr al-Arab and the Jur River at the town of Ghabat al-Arab. Measured from the place of confluence, it is approximately 240 km long. It flows through vast swamps. Düring the summer rains navigation is possible up to the town of Waw on the Jur River. After the water level falls, the Bahr al-Ghazal is navigable from the place of confluence of its headstreams.

References in periodicals archive ?
00) and Hamad Ibrahim al-Karani's Gazal El Khaleej (90.
Gazal currently distributes the Van Heusen brand, the Australasian businesswear leader, under license from PVH.
Examples of outstanding results at GCSE include Samantha Edwards achieving three As and six Bs, Zoe Jennings gaining two As and seven Bs, Ben Beech with three As and one B, Ellie Cox attaining two As and six Bs, Georgia Harper with one A and seven Bs, Gazal Raii with two As and four Bs, Katie Rimmer getting four As and three Bs, Ellisha Sturridge with five As and four Bs and Laura Whelan who achieved four As and six Bs.
Summary: Nayomi is not only a respected brand in the world of glamorous nightwear and lingerie but also in the world of fragrance and beauty; boasting several iconic fragrances such as Gazal and Najma, which are much loved by thousands of women in the Middle East.
When he was four years old, his parents noticed he was unable to sit and his doctor in Jordan, bone surgery and joints consultant Dr Ismail Gazal, said he had dislocated his pelvis.
Al-Ajjan said King Saud University (KSU) students developed a prototype sport utility vehicle -- Gazal -- which is an economical SUV.
Rose Al Shaqab and Jenan Al Shaqab, the daughters of world famous Marwan Al Shaqab and Gazal Al Shaqab respectively, scored high enough to finish amongst the top five in their championships.
That area is just outside Abyei - a potential flashpoint - and is also along the South Darfur border with South Sudan's Northern Bahr El Gazal state.
Sydney, Australia, Feb 23, 2011 - (ABN Newswire) - (Global Fashion Wire) - Gazal Corporation Limited (ASX:GZL) today announced an after-tax profit for the half year ended 31st December, 2010 of A$6.
It s a beginning for democracy in the Middle East," said Gazal bin Mahfouz, a Saudi.
Many of these species are under threat of extinction, such as, the Arabian Gazal, hyena and Arabian Leopard.
OLDHAM chairman Simon Blitz and director Danny Gazal have quit their posts on the board at Boundary Park with immediate effect.