1 seeds per pod respectively) and higher seed germination percentage (82% and 94% respectively) than did self pollinated and geitonogamy
mellifera evinced that this bee visits several flowers of a same individual favouring geitonogamy
All flowers used for the study of manual self-pollination, geitonogamy
and xenogamy initiated the ovary development, though in some treatments there was subsequent abortion.
In contrast, geitonogamy
is usually disadvantageous.
We randomly selected 10 heads from the central part of the population for the bagged/artificial geitonogamy
via prior selfing, delayed selfing, or geitonogamy
P/O ratio also indicates that the species is xenogamous, although geitonogamy
and autogamy (only induced, not spontaneous) were also recorded.
Given that herbivory can have striking effects on plant size, architecture, and phenology, it is not difficult to envision that herbivory may have indirect effects on levels of geitonogamy
via alterations of pollinator behavior.
The three manual pollination treatments were: (1) geitonogamy
, in which pollen was transferred from flowers of an unmarked raceme to a recipient flower on the same plant; (2) xenogamy, in which flowers of the treatment raceme received pollen from another donor plant from within the same seed accession location as the recipient plant; (3) distant xenogamy, in which flowers of the treatment raceme received pollen from donor plants belonging to a different Ecoregion than that of the recipient flowers (Table 2, Fig.
responses to variability may reduce geitonogamy
, but the actual cues
Flowers are non-autogamous but they are self-compatible (100%), and geitonogamy
and xenogamy could exist (100% each) (Flores-Palacios 1995).
(transfer of pollen among flowers on the same plant) may lead to reduced outcrossing and interfere with sex function.