gender

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gender

In many other languages, especially the Romance languages (such as French, Spanish, and Italian), a large number of nouns are coded as being either feminine or masculine.
This used to be the case in Old English as well, but in modern English only certain nouns that describe a person who performs an action are inflected for gender. This is usually achieved by changing the end of the word to a feminine suffix, such as “-ess,” “-ine,” and “-trix.” Words are less commonly changed to specifically reflect masculine gender, but the few that do use the suffixes “-er” or “-or.”
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gender

[Lat. genus=kind], in grammar, subclassification of nouns or nounlike words in which the members of the subclass have characteristic features of agreement with other words. The term gender is not usually considered to include the classification of numbernumber,
entity describing the magnitude or position of a mathematical object or extensions of these concepts. The Natural Numbers

Cardinal numbers describe the size of a collection of objects; two such collections have the same (cardinal) number of objects if their
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. In French, for example, there are two genders, feminine and masculine, marked by the form of the articles la and le [both: the]. Most French nouns referring to males are masculine (le garcon [the boy]), and most referring to females are feminine (la fille [the girl]), thus conforming to natural gender. Other words are placed in either gender, e.g., le jardin [the garden] and la table [the table], being instances of grammatical gender. In German, Russian, and Latin there are three genders, called masculine, feminine, and neuter. Scandinavian and Dutch languages have in addition to these three a "common" gender, which combines, and often distinguishes between, masculine and feminine. A genderlike distinction between animate and inanimate is widespread, e.g., in Algonquian languages of North America and the Andamanese of the Bay of Bengal. Some Bantu languages have 20 genderlike noun classes. English nouns may be divided into gender classes according to the personal pronouns they take. Nouns referring to males take he and nouns referring to females take she. Most English nouns referring to objects that cannot be classified by sex take the pronoun it, although exceptions exist; ships, for example, are sometimes referred to as she. The grammatical device of concord, or agreement, is bound up with gender distinctions. By it one word bears a formal signal to show its relationship to the word it accompanies or modifies; thus, in la viande, the form of la shows that it is related to a word of the feminine gender class, and it may be said to agree with, or be in concord with, viande. While in most Indo-European languages gender involves nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, in Semitic langauges and some Slavic languages even verbal forms must agree with the gender of their subjects. Although gender is present in many languages, it is far from universal. In English a few words retain gender inflection (e.g., actress, executrix), but since the 12th to 15th cent. English has dropped most of the gender distinctions characteristic of its ancestor languages.

gender

  1. (common usage) the distinction between males and females according to anatomical sex.
  2. (sociological usage) a social division frequently based on, but not necessarily coincidental with, anatomical sex. Thus, sociological usage of the term gender can be at odds with everyday usage.
Sociologists and social psychologists argue that while sex refers to the biological characteristics by which human beings are categorized as ‘male’, ‘female’, or in rare instances ‘hermaphrodite’ (in which the biological characteristics of both sexes are actually or apparently combined), gender refers to the social and social-psychological attributes by which human beings are categorized as ‘masculine’, ‘feminine’ or ‘androgynous’ (in which the social-psychological characteristics of both genders are intentionally or unintentionally combined). Many sociologists stress that within sociological discourse gender should be used when referring to the socially-created division of society into those who are masculine and those who are feminine. Whereas ‘male’ and ‘female’ are terms reserved for biological differences between men and women and boys and girls, ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ are reserved for culturally-imposed behavioural and temperamental traits deemed socially appropriate to the sexes. These traits are learnt via a complex and continuing process of SOCIALIZATION.

Anthropologists (e.g. Margaret MEAD) and psychologists, as well as sociologists, have stressed that gender is not biologically determined but socially and culturally defined. Gender is seen as culturally and historically relative, i.e. the meaning, interpretation and expression of gender varies both within and between cultures, and is subject to historical modification. Social factors such as class, age, race and ethnicity also shape the specific meaning, expression and experience of gender, underlining the fact that gender cannot be equated in any simplistic way with sex or SEXUALITY. see FEMINIST THEORY.

gender

[′jen·dər]
(electricity)
The classification of a connector as female or male.
References in periodicals archive ?
This Fall 2014/Winter 2015 issue of the Harvard International Review, entitled The Personal and the Political: Gender in International Relations, traverses the topic of gender, from recent developments in the traditional gender equality debate to globalizing the LGBTQ movement, Professor Karen Musalo, Director of the Center for Gender and Refugee Studies, discusses the evolving standards in gender asylum; Iranian gay rights activist Arsham Parsi discusses the status of queers in Iran; and staff writers Sarah Moon, Alice Hu, and Kevin Xie discuss specific gender issues in India, the US, and China respectively.
Global Gender Issues in the New Millennium is a pick for any college-level political science or women's studies collection, and provides a fine introduction to how gendered world politics affects social and political forces.
To ensure that all operations are gender sensitive, the Bank should consider providing financial and other incentives for non-gender units and non-gender focal point staff to better incorporate gender issues into their programmes.
This subject of gender issues in the literature of the Caribbean or in the scholarship of the Caribbean has not been addressed in the journal previously, and we are excited about the prospects of what you as scholars in the field have to contribute on this much ignored but needed topic.
CBSE, in the aftermath of the outrage over the gang rape, took the initiative to introduce a special elective subject on human rights and gender with a growing demand for generating awareness among people on gender issues as early in life while they are still in school.
Before entering the University of Maryland's dual-degree MSW/MBA program in 2005, Kammer hosted a weekly radio show called "In a Man's Shoes" on a public station near Baltimore from 1983 to 1989 and wrote three books on the social implications of male gender issues.
Bell reflect an unfortunate and all too common misunderstanding of, and insensitivity towards, individuals facing gender issues.
What I discovered was that I didn't know what I didn't know about gender issues.
The second tranche of 35 million euros will be used to fund the implementation of the gender equality project, especially by raising of awareness on gender issues among the people, including opinion leaders, parliamentarians and business leaders.
Fehmida Mirza stated that gender issues were on the priority list of the government and that passing legislation to empower and protect women in Pakistan was the hallmark of the democratic Government.
The treatment for people with gender issues often includes helping them understand that they are not mentally ill.
The award recognizes efforts of Charkha's Trilingual Feature Service in Hindi, English and Urdu to provide journalistic focus on a variety of gender issues across states in multiple languages.