promoter

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promoter

1. Chem a substance added in small amounts to a catalyst to increase its activity
2. Genetics a sequence of nucleotides, associated with a structural gene, that must bind with messenger RNA polymerase before transcription can proceed

Promoter

 

a substance added to a catalyst in order to increase its activity, selectivity, or stability. A promoted catalyst is usually a catalyst containing a small amount of a promoter that by itself is catalytically inactive or only slightly active. In the case where the promoter is not inactive, the addition creates a mixed catalyst. Often an additive, given certain external conditions, concentrations, and methods of addition, acts as a promoter, whereas under different conditions the same additive serves as a catalyst poison. Most commercial catalysts belong to the promoted category. For example, V2Os, the catalyst which speeds up the oxidation of SO2 into SO3, is promoted by the oxides of alkali metals; metallic Fe, which catalyzes the synthesis of ammonia, is promoted by the oxides of aluminum, calcium, potassium, and other metals. The mechanism involved in the activity of promoters is explained by modern theories of catalysis.

promoter

[prə′mōd·ər]
(chemistry)
A chemical which itself is a feeble catalyst, but greatly increases the activity of a given catalyst.
(genetics)
The site on deoxyribonucleic acid to which ribonucleic acid polymerase binds preparatory to initiating transcription of a gene or an operon.

catalyst

1. A substance which accelerates a chemical reaction but appears to remain unchanged itself.
2. A hardener that accelerates cure of adhesives either with or without heat. Used primarily with synthetic resins.
References in periodicals archive ?
Several polymorphic variants have been described in the APOC3 gene promoter, affecting protein transcription and synthesis (11); among them, promoter variants at positions -455 and -482 have been studied more extensively because of their altered affinity for the nuclear transcription factors that mediate the insulin response (12).
Through the application of its core technologies, the XenoSensor Mice, implanted with human SXR, CAR or CYP3A4 gene promoter, coupled with XenoPharm's CleanScreen high-throughput screening assays XenoPharm provides a proprietary technology platform to improve the predictive value of cell and animal-based biomedical research.
MMP7 gene promoter sequences were obtained from peripheral blood samples from 58 consecutive patients with CRC of different stages who underwent surgery and from 111 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals (control group).
Through the application of its core technologies, the XenoSensor Mice engineered with human SXR or, CAR receptors, or the CYP3A4 gene promoter, coupled with XenoPharm's CleanScreen high-throughput screening assays, XenoPharm provides a proprietary technology platform to improve the predictive value of cell and animal-based biomedical research.
The peer-reviewed manuscript, "Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the TIGR/MYOCILIN gene promoter with the severity of primary open-angle glaucoma," published in the September 2001 issue of the journal Clinical Genetics (volume 60:3, pages 220-225), was based on a retrospective study involving 142 patients with POAG.
A novel PCR-RFLP assay for the detection of the single nucleotide polymorphism at position -1082 in the human IL-10 gene promoter.
The alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) gene was inserted into this site under the control of a milk gene promoter switch.
Second, the use of the telomerase gene promoter (also cloned by Geron) is being investigated for use in viruses which selectively replicate in, and kill, cancer cells.
Molecular, haematological and clinical studies of the -101C [right arrow] T substitution of the [beta]-globin gene promoter in 25 [beta]-thalassaemia patients and 45 heterozygotes.
The patent, number 6,054,635, covers a novel plant gene promoter derived from raspberry fruit.
In addition, our previous findings, obtained by deletion analysis, suggest that an unknown transcriptional factor(s) binding to a negative regulatory element(s) (nucleotides -30 and +139) of the apo(a) gene promoter may be affected by aspirin (17).
Genzyme Transgenics provided the proprietary gene promoter, expression technology, and technical expertise necessary for initial production and will receive royalties based on net product sales.