foundation for the development of general systems theory.
Then, in the 1960s, general systems theory attained
See generally DEBORA HAMMOND, THE SCIENCE OF SYNTHESIS: EXPLORING THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY (University Press of Colorado 2003) (discussing the founders and development of systems theory); Ludwig von Bertalanffy, The History and Status of General Systems Theory, in TRENDS IN GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY 21 (George J.
TRENDS IN GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY, supra note 10, at 32, 253.
General Systems Theory was first proposed in the 1940s by biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy.
Using General Systems Theory, NPS has been pilot-testing an experimental, systems-based food safety evaluation at food service operations in the National Park system.
The models examined include general systems theory
, attachment theory, the stages of change model, the normal or bell-shaped curve, and hierarchies and inverted hierarchies.
Pioneered in the 1940s and evolved over time into the new science of complexity, general systems theory
focuses on interrelationships rather than things, identifying patterns of change instead of static snapshots taken at a particular moment in time, and on the behavior of connected wholes rather than independent parts.
General systems theory
is used as a framework for understanding how the pieces of TPS fit together, and current theoretical models are used to explain and justify many of Toyota's business practices and organizational preferences.