York-Antwerp Rules

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York-Antwerp Rules

 

(York-Antwerp Rules of General Average, Y.A.R.), a collection of navigational rules generally accepted in international commerce that regulate the allocation between shipowners and cargo owners of losses incurred by either of them as a result of expenses and sacrifices intentionally made during transport to save the ship and cargo from any common danger; the losses are allocated in proportion to the value of the ship and cargo.

The York-Antwerp Rules were drawn up in 1864 in the city of York (Great Britain) by an international conference of representatives of the chambers of commerce, shipowners and cargo owners, and insurance companies of a number of countries engaged in maritime commerce; in 1877 a conference in Antwerp made substantial amendments in the rules.

The present version of the York-Antwerp Rules, which was adopted at the conference of the International Maritime Committee in Amsterdam in 1950, is in wide use. Although the rules have neither the power of law nor of an international agreement, their application in each single case being based on agreement between the shipowner and the cargo owner, the majority of the standard forms of freight charters and bills of lading, including those used by Soviet shipping, provide for use of the rules.

The York-Antwerp Rules are subdivided into “lettered” rules (from A to G) and “numbered” rules (from I to XXII). The numbered rules cover specific incidents of general average (the allocation of losses from jettisoning part of the cargo to save the ship and the remaining cargo, from extinguishing fires on board, and the like), as well as determination of the amount of certain kinds of losses and the value of the salvaged property. The lettered rules contain the definition of the general average (rule A) and a number of other general provisions.

The York-Antwerp Rules significantly influenced the legisla-tion concerning general average in many states; with some sharp-ening of definitions and some changes, they are reproduced in theMaritime Code of the USSR.

References in periodicals archive ?
However, odds ratio indicated that households with incomes above US$1 were likely to consume vitamin A amounts (from fats and oils) above the general average (390 [micro]gRE/p/d).
Rule C of the 2004 York-Antwerp Rules provides in pertinent part that "any loss or damage sustained or expense incurred by reason of delay, whether on the voyage or subsequently, and any indirect loss whatsoever, shall not be allowed as general average.
Of Taylor's seven adversaries a year ago, six of them improved on their general average against him, with only Wayne Mardle preventing the clean sweep.
If you take the general average over the last decade, 22, 000 would be a very satisfying total when you bear in mind our final league position last season and the fact we reluctantly had to increase season ticket prices.
The average Latino consumer spends $117 a week on food, according to the Food Marketing Institute, far above the general average of $83 per week.
50 Years Ago The financial difficulties of the Birmingham City Transport Department could have been avoided entirely by charging fares at the general average applying to transport undertakings particularly for longer journeys, the city treasurer has said.
Young men aged 18-39 years get 17% of their total calories from fast food; adults in general average 12% of calories from fast food, 10% from restaurants, and 11% from other places, including cafeterias, bars, others' homes, and vending machines.
To be more certain of the meaning of any single trial of water-repellent formulation, confirmatory tests should be conducted to be sure that the general average is near the expected mean of 60 + or - 5 percent.
AWIA (along with several state organizations) offers general average wind speed data.
Much confusion stems from the term average such as particular average and general average.
A national survey revealed the following general average composition of institution ethics committees.

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