Generalissimo

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Generalissimo

 

the highest military title in the armed forces of a number of countries. The title generalissimo has been conferred on generals who commanded several armies—usually allied armies—in wartime. It is also sometimes conferred on members of families of reigning dynasties and on statesmen as an honorary title.

In 1569 the French king Charles IX granted the title generalissimo to his 18-year-old brother, who subsequently became King Henry III. Later, the title was held by Duke H. de Guise (1550-88), Prince L. Condé (1621-88), Duke L. de Villars (1653-1734), and Duke A. Richelieu (1696-1788) in France. In Austria it was conferred on Prince R. Montecuccoli (1609-80), Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663-1736), Count L. von Daun (1705-66), Archduke Charles (1771-1847), and Prince K. Schwarzenberg (1771-1820). The title generalissimo was held by Count A. Wallenstein (1583-1634) in Germany.

In Russia the first generalissimo was the voevoda (military commander) A. S. Shein (1662-1700). The title was granted to him by Peter I the Great on June 28, 1696, for successful actions at Azov. The title generalissimo was officially introduced in Russia by the Military Regulations of 1716. On May 12, 1727, the title was conferred on Prince A. D. Menshikov (1673-1729), on Nov. 11, 1740, on Prince Anton Ulrich of Brunswick (1714-74), and on Oct. 28, 1799, on the great Russian general A. V. Suvorov (1729-1800). In the USSR the title of Generalissimo of the Soviet Union was established by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of June 26, 1945, and it was conferred on J. V. Stalin on June 27, 1945.

A. G. KAVTARADZE

References in periodicals archive ?
Todo el tiempo sueno con regresar para dar testimonio al rio, a la cascada, al juez de paz, incluso al Generalisimo mismo".
El monumento debia estar rodeado de reja de hierro y al pie del dibujo se leia: "Dedicado al Senor Hidalgo, Generalisimo de las Armas de America por su fiel vasallo, Manuel Foncerrada y Garcia".
Quien era ese que pretendia cenirse la corona de nuestros reyes y se colgo a si mismo los nobles rotulos de Generalisimo y Principe de la Paz?
El narrador ilustra este asunto contando un episodio de la vida de Aguirre: el Generalisimo ve a la amante de este coronel y desea tener relaciones con ella (14).
Es en este subtitulo donde la autora subraya la legitimacion de la violencia por parte de los verdugos de Trujillo en la persona de Carlos Garcia, quien habia planeado un complot para derrocar el gobierno del generalisimo.
The project was organized by the new Ministry of Culture, which is an indication of the gigantic transformation taking place in the writers' fatherland since the death of the generalisimo.
Esta novela, que narra los ultimos anos de la dictadura del generalisimo dominicano Rafael Leonidas Trujillo (1930-1961), revela un caracter hibrido mitad novela historica y periodismo novelado y mitad melodrama kitch y, junto con La utopia arcaica, se ha transformado en un fenomeno cultural, casi en otro episodio de la misma fabula historica que cuenta, pero que no debe ser leida como una fabula ciega sobre la imposibilidad de la cultura y la civilizacion democratica en una America Latina enferma de servidumbre voluntaria y necesitada en lo politico y en lo cultural de guias, caudillos, capos, senorones y hombres fuertes.
La Fiesta del Chivo se puede leer tambien como una novela de no-ficcion o como un alto ejercicio de periodismo: desde una implacable documentacion, Vargas Llosa entra en el mundo de fierro de Trujillo, tambien conocido como La Bestia, El Generalisimo, El Jefe Maximo, El Benefactor, El Chivo.
Regresa entonces a Espana y desde la puerta de su casa de Rosales ve pasar el feretro del generalisimo como el decia para cumplir al adagio arabe que dice: sientate a la puerta de tu casa y veras pasar el cadaver de tu enemigo.
Pinochet olvida que los espanoles pudieron evolucionar hacia una sociedad democratica gracias a que con la muerte de Francisco Franco no solo se enterraron 40 anos de dictadura, sino tambien los suenos del generalisimo de perpetuar su regimen en el poder.
The generalisimo was far too preoccupied with planning his assault on Madrid to devote attention to the trivial needs of the Irish.
Appropriation of palaces, Dona Carmen's performing her stately duties as if she were queen, repeated comparisons in the censored press between the generalisimo and Philip II, the regal protocol of visits to Madrid by emissaries of the most powerful governments, interruptions of Cabinet meetings so that Franco could go hunting, as so many kings of Spain had done--all these circumstances contributed to Franco's self-creation as another Spanish icon.