discrimination

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discrimination

Electronics the selection of a signal having a particular frequency, amplitude, phase, etc., effected by the elimination of other signals by means of a discriminator

discrimination

the process by which a member, or members, of a socially defined group is, or are, treated differently (especially unfairly) because of his/her/their membership of that group. To be selected for less favourable treatment, a social group may be constructed by reference to such features as race, ethnicity, gender or religion. A distinction can be drawn between ‘categorical’ and 'S tatistical’ discrimination. Categorical discrimination is the unfavourable treatment of all persons socially assigned to a particular social category because the discriminator believes that this discrimination is required by his social group. Statistical discrimination refers to less favourable treatment of individuals based on the belief that there is a probability that their membership of a social group leads to them possessing less desirable characteristics.

In the UK, there are laws that deal with both sex and race discrimination: the Sex Discrimination Act (1975) and the Race Relations Act (1976). In both Acts, ‘direct’ discrimination is made illegal, in that a person may not be treated less favourably than another on the grounds of gender, colour, ethnicity or race. However, the Race Relations Act also attempts to tackle ‘indirect’ discrimination. This was defined as consisting of treatment which may be described as equal in a formal sense, as between different racial groups, but discriminatory in its effect upon a particular racial group. Indirect discrimination is the application of conditions or requirements which may mean that:' (1) the proportion of persons of a racial group who can comply with these is considerably smaller than the proportion of persons not of that racial group who can comply with them; (2) they are to the detriment of the persons who cannot comply with them; (3) they are not justifiable irrespective of the colour, race, nationality or ethnic or national origins of the person to whom they are applied’ (A Guide to the Race Relations Act 1976 Home Office, 1977). See also POSITIVE DISCRIMINATION, RACE RELATIONS, SEGREGATION, GHETTO, PREJUDICE, SEX DISCRIMINATION.

Discrimination

 

(1) The limitation or deprivation of the rights of certain categories of citizens on the basis of such criteria as race, national origin, and sex. In bourgeois countries racial discrimination is especially widespread—the limitation of rights and persecution of persons for reasons of their racial origin. It is openly practiced in the USA against Indians, Negroes, and Chinese. In the Republic of South Africa the discrimination against East Indians and other non-Boer and non-European populations practiced by the English and Afrikaaners (Boers) has reached large proportions. Widely practiced in capitalist states are such forms of discrimination as lower pay for the labor of women and young people and the limitation of rights on the basis of political and religious convictions.

(2) Discrimination in international relations is the establishment of lesser rights for the representatives, organizations, or citizens of one country than for those of another. The practice of discrimination usually brings about reciprocal measures in the form of retortion on the part of the government against whom it is directed. The USSR and other socialist countries vigorously oppose all forms of discrimination in international relations.

discrimination

[di‚skrim·ə′nā·shən]
(communications)
In frequency-modulated systems, the detection or demodulation of the imposed variations in the frequency of the carriers.
In a tuned circuit, the degree of rejection of unwanted signals.
Of any system or transducer, the difference between the losses at specified frequencies with the system or transducer terminated in specified impedances.
(computer science)

discrimination

discriminationclick for a larger image
The minimum angular distance at which two objects on a radar screen can be seen separately. In the figure, the discrimination capability of the radar is 2°.
References in periodicals archive ?
Bill S-201, An Act to prohibit and prevent genetic discrimination, was re-introduced and passed by the Senate on April 14, 2016.
See Rothstein, supra note 141, at 478 ("Most of the current proposals to prohibit genetic discrimination in employment merely prohibit employer use of genetic information.
Although the Dominican Republic has the examples of these two Declarations to work off of, it has failed to implement any genetic discrimination policy.
Kim, supra note 6, at 699 ("GINA, then, is more about addressing the perception or fear of genetic discrimination than reversing any present reality of such discrimination.
401, 423 (2001) ("[T]he finding that there is no widespread genetic discrimination in health insurance at present does not necessarily undermine the case for regulation.
Prior survey data showed that some internists were concerned about genetic discrimination in the context of genetic testing of patients.
discrimination, that genetic discrimination is a historical and current
Members of the health care community have expressed concern that genetic discrimination will hamper efforts to detect and mitigate hereditary hemochromatosis, a relatively common condition marked by iron overload, which can lead to irreversible organ damage and related health problems.
The issues of genetic discrimination and sports collided in October 2005 when the Chicago Bulls, a member of the National Basketball Association (NBA), asked one of its team members, Eddy Curry, to undergo genetic testing to diagnose a suspected heart arrhythmia.
Sixteen years have passed since Wisconsin Governor Tommy Thompson signed the first state law to prevent genetic discrimination in March 1991.
This bill prohibits genetic discrimination in health insurance and the workplace by barring health insurers and employers from requesting or using genetic information to take any action that would affect an employee's health or employment benefits," says Sen.
President Bill Clinton issued an executive order banning genetic discrimination in the executive branch of the federal workforce in 2000.