Gentiana


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Gentiana

 

a genus of perennial (more rarely, annual) herbs and undershrubs of the family Gentianaceae. The leaves are opposite and sessile, the flowers pentamerous (less frequently, tetramerous) with a sympetalous corolla; they are dark blue or light blue, or less frequently, yellow.

There are approximately 400 species of Gentiana growing all over the world, but they are found principally in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere; many are characteristic of alpine and subalpine meadows. In the USSR there are more than 90 species. Two species found widely in the meadows, clearings, and copses of the European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, and Western Siberia are the marsh gentian (G. pneumonanthe) and the cruciate gentian (G. cruciata). G. olivieri is found in the more or less arid and desert regions of the Caucasus and Middle Asia. In the USSR the yellow gentian G. lutea grows in subalpine meadows of the Carpathians; it is of some medicinal importance. Gentiana are used also in the production of liqueurs and they are often grown as ornamentals.

REFERENCES

Atlas lekarstvennykh rastenii SSSR. Moscow, 1962.
Wilkie, D. Gentians. London, 1950.

T. V. EGOROVA

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Gentiana species XII: In vitro culture, regeneration, and production of secoiridoid glucosides.
Coronilla varia, Polygala maior, Gentiana cruciata) and tall forbs (Centaurea scabiosa, Peucedanum cervaria) and scattered scrubs.
Asimismo, se hace evidente una mayor cobertura de Pycnophyllum sp, y la aparicion de Aciachne pulvinata y Gentiana sedifolia.
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Gray Hidalguense h Gentiana spathacea Kunth 12190, 12165 (2) Sierra Madre Oriental (Pr) y Sierra Madre Occidental KRAMERIACEAE ar Krameria cytisoides Cav.
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Selaginella porphyrospora PE Gentiana spathacea R Zigadenus virescens R
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At the beginning, at least in Europe, natural flavourings were obtained from the local flora (Alpine flowers like gentiana and achillea); it then became quite frequent to use exotic spices imported from India and Africa (e.
Obolaria and Gentiana were the closest genera to Swertia, which is paraphyletic including Halenia, Comastoma, Gentianella, and Lomatogonium.