Geographic School

Geographic School

 

(in sociology), a trend in non-Marxist sociology that regards the geographic environment or its components, such as climate, soil, and rivers, as the determining factor in social development. The idea that social phenomena are determined by the geographic environment was expressed in classical antiquity by Democritus, Hippocrates, Herodotus, Polybius, and Strabo, in the Middle Ages by the Arab thinker ibn-Khaldun, and in France in the 16th century by J. Bodin. The founder of the geographic school is considered to be C. Montesquieu, who developed the idea of the influence of geographic conditions and climate on the life of man, on the customs and mores of different peoples, and on the evolution of the economic and even political order of various nations. An important representative of the school was the English historian H. T. Buckle. The questions posed by the geographic school have been investigated by many geographers, historians, and economists of the late 19th and first half of the 20th century, including the German geographer and ethnologist F. Ratzel, the French geographer E. Reclus, the American geographer E. Huntington, and the Russian scholar L. I. Mechnikov. Although they were onesided, the ideas of the geographic school were at first directed against religious ideology and the cult of “great men” and advanced the principle of determinism in social life. In the second half of the 19th century, as scientific sociology developed, the geographic school lost its progressive features. It ignored the driving social forces in historical progress and extolled geographic environment as the decisive factor in the economic, political, and cultural development of different peoples. Not infrequently these ideas were the basis of reactionary theories of the innate causes of the backwardness of colonial peoples and were put forward to justify the colonial policies of capitalist states. In the age of imperialism the geographic determinism of a number of reactionary ideologists was used as an apologia and ideological foundation for imperialist expansion. In contemporary sociology the geographic school no longer exists as an independent trend, but the problems it posed are being investigated in corresponding branches of sociology, such as social ecology.

REFERENCES

Mechnikov, L. I. Tsivilizatsiia i velikie istoricheskie reki. Moscow, 1924. (Translated from French.)
Kovalevskii, M. M. Sotsiologiia, vol. 1-2. St. Petersburg, 1910.

V. I. KOROVIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Give precocious kids fun National Geographic school bags to contain all their books, notebooks, pen and paper.
Varjabedian's trading of New Mexico's astonishing colors for texture (along with a particular style of exposure that turns hard light or high color into something resembling a rime of ice) will seem satisfactory to readers fond of the Ansel Adams school of landscape photography, and less so to readers fond of the National Geographic school.
If parents are willing to pick up and move for a better school, then clearly our system of rigid geographic school districts is failing, and a new system based on school choice needs to be implemented.
The acquisition of National Geographic School Publishing and the creation of the new National Geographic Learning brand is very exciting for us and for our customers in the English language teaching and learning space," said Cengage Learning President and CEO Ron Dunn.
The National Geographic School Publishing and Literacy Achievement Research Center will host its 2008 Literacy Institute, aimed at connecting science and literacy to promote student success, on July 9 and 10 at the National Geographic Society Headquarters in Washington, D.
Mico previously served as the founding publisher of National Geographic School Publishing, while Hiland was editor-in-chief for National Geographic School Publishing.
A newly created NGS division will combine the HamptonBrown imprint with National Geographic School Publishing, a producer of nonfiction, supplemental education materials.
Prior to joining Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, James served as Vice President, Product Development at National Geographic School Publishing from 2008 through 2009, where he led product development efforts for the Secondary Education Publishing Center.
Hosted by Judy Woodruff, Senior Correspondent for The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, the documentary will visit schools throughout Ohio, an important swing state that represents a range of socioeconomic and geographic school districts.

Full browser ?