or geographic journals, periodicals concerned with geography. Geographic journals developed in the 18th century in connection with the work of academies of science, geographic societies, universities, and special scientific establishments. The first Russian geographic journal, Istoricheskie, genealogicheskie i geografi-cheskie primechaniia v “Vedomostiakh”. (Historical, Genealogical, and Geographic Notes in the “Registers”), was published in 1728. The journal Izvestiia Russkogo geo-graficheskogo obshchestva (News of the Russian Geographic Society), now Izvestiia Vsesoiuznogo geografi-cheskogo obshchestva (News of the All-Union Geographic Society), was founded in 1865. It was outstanding for the scientific value of the materials it published, which were associated with famous Russian geographers, including P. P. Semenov-Tian-Shanskii, A. I. Voeikov, and Iu. M. Shokalskii. In 1894 the Moscow Society of Nature Experimenters began to publish the journal Zemlevedenie (Earth Science), which was founded by D. N. Anuchin. (Since 1940 it has come out in irregular collections.)
In the USSR the development of geographic science laid the foundation for the appearance of various geographic journals and nonperiodical publications. In addition to Izvestiia Vsesoiuznogo geographicheskogo obshchestva (founded in 1865), Soviet geographic journals include Izvestiia AN SSSR: Seriia geograficheskaia (News of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR: Geographic Series, since 1951), Trudy Instituta geografii AN SSSR (Transactions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, since 1931), and collections of the Institute of Siberian and Far Eastern Geography of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Other geographic journals published in the USSR are Izvestiia AN Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR: Seriia geologicheskikh i geograficheskikh nauk (News of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR: Geologic and Geographic Sciences Series, since 1958), Izvestiia AN Armianskoi SSR: Seriia geologicheskikh i geogr afiche skikh nauk (News of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR: Geologic and Geographic Sciences Series, since 1957), Trudy Instituta geografii im. Vakhushti An Gruzinskoi SSR (Transactions of the Vakhushti Geographic Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, since 1947), Vestnik Moskov-skogo universiteta: Seriia 5: Geografiia (Bulletin of Moscow University: Series 5: Geography, since 1960), and Vestnik Leningradskogo universiteia: Geologiia, Geografiia (Bulletin of Leningrad University: Geology, Geography, since 1946). Also published are collections of the Moscow Branch of the Geographic Society— Voprosy geografiia (Problems of Geography, since 1946) and collections of the Eastern Commission of the Geographic Society— Strany i narody Vostoka (Countries and Peoples of the East, since 1959). Branches and divisions of the Geographic Society in other cities publish their own geographic collections. Many universities and pedagogical institutes publish special issues devoted to problems of geography— Zapiski (Notes) and Uchenye trudy (Scholarly Works). The journal Geografiia v shkole (Geography in the School, 1934) is intended for teachers, and the popular geographic journal Vokrug sveta (Around the World) is for young people.
Geographic materials are also found in the journals Geomorfologiia (Geomorphology, since 1970), Okeanologiia (Oceanography, since 1961), Meteorologiia i gidrologiia (Meteorology and Hydrology, since 1950), Priroda (Nature, since 1912), and Nauka i zhizn’ (Science and Life, since 1934).
Approximately 220 periodical geographic journals and collections are published abroad, including 23 in France, 22 in the USA, and 15 each in Great Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), and Japan. More than half (52 percent) of foreign geographic periodical publications are general geographic scientific journals and collections, and about 30 percent deal with separate branches of geography. Regional, scientific-pedagogical, and popular scientific publications are less widespread.
Geographic journals have undergone considerable development in foreign socialist countries. Among the better known are Petermanns geographische Mitteilungen (Gotha, since 1855) and Zeitschrift für den Erdkundeunterricht (Berlin, since 1949), published in the German Democratic Republic, the popular scientific geographic journal Geografiia(Sofia, since 1950) and Izvestiia na Geografskiia institut Bulgarskata Akademiia na naukite (Sofia, since 1951), published in Bulgaria, and collections of the Geographic Society Sbornik Ceskoslovenské Spolecnosti zemêpisné (Prague, since 1896) and Geograficky casopis (Bratislava, since 1949), published in Czechoslovakia. In Poland geographic journals include Przegtqd geograficzny (Warsaw, since 1918) and Czasopismo geograficzne (Ló-dzWarsaw, since 1923), and in Hungary, Acta geographica: Acta universitatis szegediensis (Szeged, since 1955) and Földrajzi közlemények (Budapest, since 1873). Other well-known geographic journals are published in Rumania (Natura, Bucharest, since 1949) and Yugoslavia (Geografski glasnik, Zagreb, since 1949, and Geografski vestnik, Ljubljana, since 1925). In foreign socialist countries geographic journals are devoting more and more attention to solving scientific problems that are raised by the basic tasks of socialist construction.
Among the geographic journals published in capitalist countries, the best known include the British Geographical Journal (London, since 1893) and Geographical Magazine (London, since 1935) and the French Annales de géographie (Paris, since 1891). Geographic journals published in the USA include Geographical Review (New York, since 1916), Annals of the Association of American Geographers (Washington, D.C., since 1911), Professional Geographer (Washington, D.C., since 1949), and Economic Geography (Worcester, Mass., since 1925). Other foreign journals include the Italian Rivista geografica italiana (Florence, since 1893) and Annali di ricerche e studi di geografia (Genoa, since 1945), the Swedish Geografiska annaler (Stockholm, since 1919), the Finnish Fennia (Helsinki, since 1889), and the Swiss Geographica helvetica (Zürich, since 1946). Published in the FRG are Berichte zur deutschen Landeskunde (Remagen-Stuttgart, since 1941) and Erdkunde: Archiv für Wissenschaftliche Geographie (Bonn, since 1947) and in Japan, Chigiraku Hyoron (Tokyo, since 1925) and Chiri (Tokyo, since 1956). Increasingly, geographic journals have been established and maintained in developing countries. In India, the best known are Geographical Review of India (Calcutta, since 1936) and National Geographical Journal of India (Benares, since 1955). In Brazil, well-known journals are Boletim geográfico (Rio de Janeiro, since 1943) and Re-vista Brasileira de geografía (Rio de Janeiro, since 1939), in Mexico— Boletín de la Sociedad mexicana de geografía y estadística (Mexico City, since 1839), and in the UAR —Bulletin de la Société de géographie d’Egypte (Cairo, since 1922). Other journals include the Nigerian Geographical Journal (Ibadan, since 1957) and the Ethiopian Geographical Journal (Addis Ababa, since 1963).
In several countries geographic journals intended especially for geography teachers are published—for example, Journal of Geography (Chicago-New York, since 1902) and Geography (Manchester, 1895-1902). In capitalist countries popular geographic journals are also published. Containing primarily photographs and propagandistc material, they are not scientific—for example, National Geographic Magazine, which has been published in Washington, D.C., since 1888.
I. I. PARKHOMENKO