After several years, porcupines dig into the depression again to reach the geophyte
corms or bulbs which were renewed in the digging after partial consumption of a geophyte
, such as Bellevalia eigii or Tulipa systola, etc.
The semishrub Sarcopoterium spinosum and the geophytes Narcissus tazetta and Sternbergia clusiana are representatives of this phenomenon in the Negev (Danin, 1972, 1983a).
Sternbergia clusiana is a typical Mediterranean geophyte found on Mount Meiron, the highest peak in the Upper Galilee, where the mean annual rainfall is 800 mm.
Herbs (rarely annuals: Conomitra), vines, or geophytes with subterranean tubers or stem succulents, with clear latex, rarely milky (especially Heterostemma).
Perennials, woody sometimes tuberous lianas, shrubs to small trees (Utleria), erect scrambling or twining herbs or geophytes with underground tuber.
Abundant shellfish and geophytes
made foragers less nomadic, increased birthrates and reduced infant death rates, Marean suggests.
South Africa has the richest geophyte
flora in the world.
, such as Watsonia and Moraea, are concentrated here and on the plateaux (Guillarmod 1971).
However, a wide range of plant foods is still present (Mitchell 1993b: table 18) and Arbousset & Daumas (1968: 250) refer to the gathering of geophytes
, which are likely to have concentrated in the foothills zone and along dolerite dykes.