In the current conditions of Vietnam, due to the insufficience of both land and sea gravity data, the determination of the best fitting geopotential
The resulting global geopotential
models (GGM), are usually provided as truncated series of spherical harmonics.
This potential is conveniently expressed as a series expansion of spherical harmonics, and such a model is called a global geopotential
Some synoptical and dynamical quantities attain in this point, such as the mean sea level pressure and its anomaly, 500-hpa geopotential
anomaly, relative vorticity advection and thermal vorticity advection and thickness advection.
Air Temperature Cloud Amount/Frequency Geopotential
Height Humidity Land Cover Maximum/Minimum Temperature Precipitable Water Sea Surface Temperature Soil Moisture/Water Surface Air Temperature Content Tropospheric Ozone Upper Level Winds Wind Shear Air Temperature Cloud Liquid Water/Ice Geopotential
Height Hydrostatic Pressure Land Cover Planetary Boundary Layer Height Precipitable Water Skin Temperature Soil Moisture/Water Surface Pressure Content Tropospheric Ozone Vertical Wind Motion Wind Shear Air Temperature Convection Geopotential
Height Ice Extent Land Cover Potential Temperature Precipitable Water Snow Water Equivalent Soil Moisture/Water Surface Winds Content Tropospheric Ozone Vorticity Wind Shear
5 for this study): June-July SLP in the tropical Atlantic (10) and November 500-mb Geopotential
Height in the far North Atlantic (12).
Both modules uses like reference surfaces the ellipsoid, the European Gravimetric (Quasi)geoid EGG97, the geoid computed from Global Geopotential
Model EGM96 and the Romanian quasigeoid.
Note that the actual inflow and outflow densities are retained for the geopotential
To create wind direction maps for Africa [using National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) Reanalysis Project database and software (NOAA NCEP-NCAR 2006], we used mean monthly sea level pressure [SLP; in millibars (mb)] and mean monthly geopotential
values for three altitude levels: 1,000 mb (150 to ~ 200 m), 925 mb (700 to ~ 800 m), and 850 mb (~ 1,500 m) covering the whole African continent (NOAA NCEP-NCAR 2005).
The L-AII update has incorporated improvements in a variety of scientific knowledge areas, including: numerical standards, geopotential
, monitor station site displacement, tidal variations in the earth's rotation, tropospheric delays, and satellite solar radiation pressure.
height teleconnections during the Northern Hemisphere winter.
Valiunas (1993) and Sliaupa (1991) have compiled a geological--geotechnical map and a geopotential
map of Vilnius and its environs (at a scale of 1 : 50 000).