George II

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George II,

1890–1947, king of the Hellenes (1922–23, 1935–47), successor and eldest son of King Constantine IConstantine I,
1868–1923, king of the Hellenes, eldest son of George I, whom he succeeded in 1913. Married to Sophia, sister of the German emperor William II, he opposed the pro-Allied policy of the Greek premier, Eleutherios Venizelos, and was forced to abdicate in 1917
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. When Constantine I was forced by the Allies to abdicate in 1917, George, also suspected of being pro-German, was passed over in favor of his younger brother AlexanderAlexander,
1893–1920, king of the Hellenes (1917–20), second son of Constantine I. After his father's forced abdication, he succeeded to the Greek throne with the support of the Allies, who distrusted the sympathies of his elder brother George (later King George II).
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, who succeeded to the Greek throne. Later, however, George succeeded Constantine I, who had been restored (1920) and again deposed (1922). Hostility to the dynasty was such, however, that George was compelled to leave Greece in 1923; a plebiscite shortly afterward established a republic. George spent his exile in Romania and later in London. Restored to his throne in 1935, King George allowed his premier, John MetaxasMetaxas, John
, 1871–1941, Greek general and statesman. A career soldier, he served in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 and in the Balkan Wars of 1912–13, in which he was assistant chief of staff.
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, to set up (1936) a dictatorship. After the conquest of Greece by Germany and Italy in World War II, George fled (1941) his country. He spent most of his exile in London. When Greece was liberated (1944) the question of the king's return was a major issue in the Greek civil war that began in Dec., 1944. George returned only in 1946, after a plebiscite had decided in favor of the monarchy. Although strongly backed by Great Britain and the United States, King George's government and army failed to defeat the rebels, and civil war continued after George's death, when his brother PaulPaul,
1901–64, king of the Hellenes (1947–64), brother and successor of George II. He married (1938) Princess Frederika of Brunswick. During Paul's reign Greece followed a pro-Western policy, and the Cyprus question was temporarily resolved.
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 succeeded him.

George II

(George Augustus), 1683–1760, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1727–60), son and successor of George I. Though devoted to Hanover, of which he was elector, George was more active in the English government than his father had been. Caroline of AnsbachCaroline of Ansbach
, 1683–1737, queen consort of George II of England, daughter of the margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. She married George in 1705 while he was electoral prince of Hanover and bore him three sons and five daughters.
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 (whom he married in 1705), through the subtle influence she exerted over him, furthered the ascendancy of the great Whig minister, Sir Robert WalpoleWalpole, Robert, 1st earl of Orford,
1676–1745, English statesman. Early Life and Career

He was the younger son of a prominent Whig family of Norfolk.
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. The early part of his reign was peaceful and notably prosperous. However, just as George had quarreled with his father over personal matters, so Frederick LouisFrederick Louis,
1707–51, prince of Wales, eldest son of George II of England. By his wife, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, he had several children, the eldest of whom became George III.
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, prince of Wales, was strongly at odds with the king and became nominal head of the opposition group that ousted Walpole in 1742. In the War of the Austrian Succession, George led his troops in person at the battle of Dettingen (1743)—the last time a British monarch did so. In 1745–46 the last uprising of the JacobitesJacobites
, adherents of the exiled branch of the house of Stuart who sought to restore James II and his descendants to the English and Scottish thrones after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. They take their name from the Latin form (Jacobus) of the name James.
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 was suppressed. England was expanding as a commercial and colonial power and clashed with France in India and in America (see French and Indian WarsFrench and Indian Wars,
1689–1763, the name given by American historians to the North American colonial wars between Great Britain and France in the late 17th and the 18th cent.
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) as well as in Europe in the complex struggle known as the Seven Years WarSeven Years War,
1756–63, worldwide war fought in Europe, North America, and India between France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and (after 1762) Spain on the one side and Prussia, Great Britain, and Hanover on the other.
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 (1756–63). The principal ministers after the fall of Walpole were Henry PelhamPelham, Henry
, 1696–1754, British statesman; brother of Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of Newcastle. He entered Parliament in 1717 and served Sir Robert Walpole as secretary for war (1724–30) and paymaster-general (1730–43).
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, his brother, Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of NewcastleNewcastle, Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of,
1693–1768, English politician, brother of Henry Pelham. He inherited (1711) the estates of his uncle, John Holles, duke of Newcastle, adopted his name, and received (1715) his title.
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, and William Pitt, later earl of ChathamChatham, William Pitt, 1st earl of
, 1708–78, British statesman, known as the Great Commoner. Proud, dramatic, and patriotic, Chatham excelled as a war minister and orator. He was the father of William Pitt.
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, the architect of England's victory in the Seven Years War. George was succeeded by his grandson George III.

Bibliography

See J. H. Plumb, The First Four Georges (1956); B. Williams, The Whig Supremacy, 1714–60 (2d ed. 1962); H. Walpole, Memoirs of King George II: The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole's Memoirs (ed. by J. Brooke, 1985).

George II

1. 1683--1760, king of Great Britain and Ireland and elector of Hanover (1727--60); son of George I. His victory over the French at Dettingen (1743) in the War of the Austrian Succession was the last appearance on a battlefield by a British king
2. 1890--1947, king of Greece (1922--24; 1935--47). He was overthrown by the republicans (1924) and exiled during the German occupation of Greece (1941--45)