Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.


1. of, characteristic of, or relating to any or all of the four kings who ruled Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1830, or to their reigns
2. of or relating to George V of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or his reign (1910--36)
3. the official language of Georgia, belonging to the South Caucasian family
4. a native or inhabitant of Georgia
5. an aboriginal inhabitant of the Caucasus
6. a native or inhabitant of the American State of Georgia
7. a person belonging to or imitating the styles of either of the Georgian periods in England



the national language of the Georgians; the main language of the Kartvelian language group. There are approximately 3.25 million speakers of Georgian in the USSR (1970, census). In the opinion of most Caucasian scholars, Georgian is related to the Abkhazo-Adygei, Nakh, and Dagestan languages, forming with them the Ibero-Caucasian language family.

Georgian is an ancient written language. The oldest written records date from the fifth century A.D. Two main periods are distinguished in the history of Georgian: Old Georgian, from the fifth to 11th centuries, and modern Georgian, which began to develop in the 12th century in secular literary records. Modern Georgian differs from Old Georgian primarily in vocabulary. The Georgian literary language is based on the Kartlian and Kakhetian dialects. Divergences between dialects are insignificant and are usually at the level of sub-dialects. The mountain dialects of eastern Georgia (for example, Tush and Khevsurian) are characterized by archaisms, whereas innovations are typical of the dialects of western Georgia (for example, Adzhar and Gurian).

Modern Georgian has five unmarked vowel phonemes and 28 consonant phonemes. Stops and affricates form a three-part series (voiced, aspirated, and glottalized); spirants are paired (voiced and voiceless). Harmonic groups of consonants are typical. Stress is weak dynamic. The morphology is rich. Prefixation and suffixation are widely used. The principle of word building is agglutinative, and there are elements of inflection. The category of grammatical gender is alien to nouns. The semantic categories of person and thing are distinguished. There are two numbers and a single declension, with six cases. The absence of an accusative case and the presence of an ergative case is typical. The declension is supplemented by postpositions. The system of verbal conjugation is complex.

The Georgian verb is marked for the categories of person, number, version, aspect, voice, the causative, and mood. Verbs are divided into transitive and intransitive, static and dynamic. They are conjugated according to the persons and numbers of both the subject and object. The subject-object conjugation system gives rise to the complex syntactic structure of a simple sentence. Three constructions are distinguished: nominative, ergative (with transitive verbs in the main past tenses), and dative. The syntactic link between the verb and the subject and object is distinctive (interdepen-dency of the members of a syntagma). A complex sentence is made up of simple sentences. Types of subordination are well developed. The word order is free. The predicate tends to occur last (in simple sentences). The attributive in modern Georgian usually precedes the dependent member. The vocabulary is rich. Stem combinations (compounds) and derived stem formations (formed by means of suffixation and prefixation) are widely used.


Marr, N. Osnovnye tablitsy k grammatike drevnegruzinskogo iazyka. St. Petersburg, 1908.
Marr, N. Grammatika drevneliteraturnogo gruzinskogo iazyka. [Moscow-]Leningrad, 1925.
Rudenko, B. Grammatika gruzinskogo iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.
Chikobava, A. S. “Gruzinskii iazyk.” In the collection lazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 4. Moscow, 1967.
Dzidziguri, Sh. V. Gruzinskii iazyk. Tbilisi, 1968.
Shanize, A. K’art’uli gramatikis sap’uzvlebi, 1: Morp’ologia. Tbilisi, 1953.
Gigineishvili, I., V. T’op’uria, and I. K’avt’araze. K’art’uli dialek’tologia, book 1. Tbilisi, 1961.
K’art’uli enis ganmartebit’i lek’sikoni, vols. 1–8. Tbilisi, 1950–64.
Schuchardt, H. Über das Georgische. Vienna, 1895.
Vogt, H. “Esquisse d’une grammaire du géorgien moderne.” Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap. Oslo, 1938. Volumes 9–10.
Tschenkéli, K. Einführung in die georgische Sprache. Vol. 1: Theoretischer Teil; vol. 2: Praktischer Teil. Zürich, 1958.
Tschenkéli, K., and J. Marchev. Georgisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch, fasc. 1–19. Zurich, 1960–70. (Continuing edition.)
Vogt, H. Grammaire de la langue Géorgienne. Oslo, 1971.


References in periodicals archive ?
This family friendly event, now in its 12th year has been inspired by Armagh's unique and historic Georgian cityscape.
Since demand for Russian tends to be higher than for Georgian in the professional world, supply for Russian courses is also much more developed.
Georgian Capital Partners has appointed RBC Dexia Investor Services to provide services for two of its hedge funds.
On August 8, following several days of heavy fighting between Georgian army and South Ossetian militants, in which around 1500 civilians, 15 Russian peacekeepers, and dozens of South Ossetian militants were killed.
Russia claimed to have sunk a Georgian boat that was trying to attack Russian vessels in the Black Sea, and Georgian officials said Russia sent tanks from South Ossetia into Georgia itself, heading towards a strategic city before being turned back.
Conversely, when the IMF forced the Georgian government to almost double cigarette excise taxes to 110 percent, those tax revenues plummeted by 37 percent.
Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili, young and Western-trained, darling of the European media, is beginning to display autocratic tendencies that go even beyond those of his deposed predecessor, Eduard Shevardnadze.
There are also many Georgian properties in the elegant squares around Upper Parliament Street with Grade I listed town houses in Mount Street and Faulkner Street.
It is the Georgian Group's first city-based campaign, having previously been dedicated to the renovation of country houses around the nation.
The Georgian company Vektor won a tender to carry out the work.
Mrs Kinnock says the letter makes clear the pressure the Georgian government was put under by the European Union over the Peter Shaw case.
military personnel to train the Georgian military are as tangled as Transcaucasian politics.

Full browser ?