Germanisms

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Germanisms

 

words and expressions in Russian that were borrowed from German. Before the reign of Peter I the Great, such words as stul, “chair,” and shliapa, “hat” (16th century), and iarmarka, “fair,” and rotmistr, “cavalry captain” (17th century), had been adopted into Russian. In the first half of the 18th century there were numerous direct borrowings from German—administrative terms such as rang (rank), shtraf (fine), kantsler (chancellor), and bukhgalter (bookkeeper), and military terms such as iunker (Junker), lager’ (camp), and gauptvakhta (guardhouse), as well as terms for the arts and professions. In the second half of the 18th century, Russian assimilated various syntactical and word-formation caiques—for example, vygliadet’ from the German aussehen (to look or appear). In the mid-19th century there was an influx of political and philosophical terms, particularly in the form of caiques, such as mirovozzrenie (from Weltanschauung, “world view”) and samoopredelenie (from Selbstbestimmung, “self-determination”).

REFERENCES

Bogoroditskii, V. A. Obshchii kurs russkoi grammatiki, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. Chapter 17.
Vinogradov, V. V. Ocherki po istorii russkogo literaturnogo iazyka XVII-XIX vv., 2nd ed. Moscow, 1938.
Bulakhovskii, L. A. Kurs russkogo literaturnogo iazyka, vol. 2, 4th ed. Kiev, 1953.
References in periodicals archive ?
Germanism is genuine popularity and therefore an ideal" (58).
By uniting their Germanism with their Christianity, they could express their two-fold belief in Jesus Christ and the future of the German nation.
He [Bergerus] prays, he reads, he rails at the devil to the point that he sweats: 'den schelm die moest heraus,'" Bergerus shouts (the author capturing the authentic Germanism of the man from Bavaria).
There is an Orteguean "color" to the Germanism of Samuel Ramos (1897-1959) and others who relied on Hartmann and Scheler for many of their ideas.
Germanism Among Mennonite Brethren Immigrants in Canada, 1930-1960: A Struggle for Ethno-Religious Integrity.
Carlyle's abrupt violence, sardonic humour, Germanisms, and sudden changes of tone and register reflected the world as he saw it, but also demonstrated his contempt for prose he thought bland, shallow, and heartless.
Dik's Yiddish style, too, despite its intrusive Germanisms and Russianisms, is replete with folk wisdom, proverbs, and wisecracks on which Sholem Aleichem, who mined in the same vein, placed the highest value, describing Dik as "the richest belletrist" in Yiddish.
In a letter (dated 1480) to Erasmus' future reacher Alexander Hegius, he censured such Germanisms as "leccator" (from the noun lecker, glutton), "burgimagister" (burgomaster), and "scultetus" (bailiff).