Gettysburg campaign


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Gettysburg campaign,

June–July, 1863, series of decisive battles of the U.S. Civil War.

The Road to Gettysburg

After his victory in the battle of ChancellorsvilleChancellorsville, battle of,
May 2–4, 1863, in the American Civil War. Late in Apr., 1863, Joseph Hooker, commanding the Union Army of the Potomac, moved against Robert E.
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, Confederate general Robert E. LeeLee, Robert Edward,
1807–70, general in chief of the Confederate armies in the American Civil War, b. Jan. 19, 1807, at Stratford, Westmoreland co., Va.; son of Henry ("Light-Horse Harry") Lee.
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 undertook a second invasion of the North. The reorganized Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac (June 17) via the Shenandoah valley, which Richard S. EwellEwell, Richard Stoddert,
1817–72, Confederate general, b. Georgetown, D.C., grad. West Point, 1840. Ewell rose rapidly in the Confederate army, becoming a major general by Oct., 1861. In 1862 he fought under T. J.
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 (2d Corps), as leader of the advance, swept clear of Union forces. By late June, Ewell was seriously threatening Harrisburg, Pa., while Lee, with James LongstreetLongstreet, James,
1821–1904, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Edgefield District, S.C. He graduated (1842) from West Point and served in the Mexican War, reaching the rank of major. At the outbreak of the Civil War he resigned from the U.S.
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 (1st Corps) and A. P. HillHill, Ambrose Powell,
1825–65, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Culpeper, Va. He served briefly in the Mexican War and had a varied army career until he resigned in Mar., 1861, to support the Confederacy.
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 (3d Corps), was at Chambersburg, Pa. However, with the absence of his cavalry under J. E. B. StuartStuart, James Ewell Brown
(Jeb Stuart), 1833–64, Confederate cavalry commander in the American Civil War, b. Patrick co., Va. Most of his U.S. army service was with the 1st Cavalry in Kansas.
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, which was raiding in the area between Washington and the position of the Union army, Lee was unable to determine the enemy's strength and movements.

When he finally learned that George G. MeadeMeade, George Gordon,
1815–72, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Cádiz, Spain. Graduated from West Point in 1835, he resigned from the army the next year and became a civil engineer. In 1842, Meade reentered the army in the corps of topographical engineers.
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 was concentrating N of the Potomac, he ordered the concentration of his own force. Meade, intending to make his stand at Pipe Creek in Maryland, sent ahead John F. Reynolds, commanding the left wing. But on July 1, John Buford's cavalry, covering Reynolds, came into contact with Harry Heth's division of Hill's corps on the Chambersburg pike just W of Gettysburg. The environs of Gettysburg thus became the unintended site of the greatest battle of the war (July 1–3, 1863).

The Battles

The Federals had the best of A. P. Hill's forces until midafternoon on the first day at Gettysburg, when, outflanked by Ewell, advancing from the north, they were driven to Cemetery Hill, south of the town. Meade on the recommendation of Winfield Scott HancockHancock, Winfield Scott,
1824–86, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Montgomery Square, near Norristown, Pa. He served with distinction in the Mexican War and was chief quartermaster on the Pacific coast when the Civil War broke out.
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 abandoned his Pipe Creek plans and hurried up his whole force. On July 2, against the Union left, Longstreet led the main attack, which was not delivered until about 4 PM; the Army of the Potomac thus had time to consolidate its strong position. The Confederates took the Peach Orchard but were repulsed when they attempted to seize Round Top and Little Round Top, commanding eminences at the south end of Cemetery Ridge. On the Union right, Ewell carried Culp's Hill but was beaten off at Cemetery Hill.

Meade's counterattack on the morning of July 3 retook Culp's Hill. Lee ordered Longstreet to attack the Union center with George E. PickettPickett, George Edward,
1825–75, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Richmond, Va. After distinguishing himself in the Mexican War (especially at Chapultepec), Pickett served on the Texas frontier (1849–55) and in Washington Territory (1856–61).
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's division, supported by part of Hill's corps (about 15,000 men in all). After a bombardment of the Union position by the massed Confederate artillery, Pickett moved forward in his famous charge. In the face of terrific artillery and musket fire, the gallant Southerners reached and momentarily held the first Union line. But Pickett's support gave way, and Hancock drove him back with tremendous losses. Meanwhile Stuart's cavalry, in an attempt to get at the Union right and rear, was defeated by David M. GreggGregg, David McMurtie,
1833–1916, Union general in the Civil War, b. Huntingdon, Pa., grad. West Point, 1855. Gregg served with the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac and was particularly distinguished in the fighting of July 3 at Gettysburg, when he checked Jeb Stuart's
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. Both armies, exhausted, held their positions until the night of July 4, when Lee withdrew. High water in the Potomac delayed his crossing back to Virginia, but Meade did not attack him in force.

Aftermath

The Gettysburg battles included more than 160,000 soldiers and many camp laborers. These included thousands of slaves forced to serve the Southern cause. The battles created a bloodbath like none America had ever before experienced. The Union army, which had been the more numerous, lost 23,000 men either killed, wounded, or missing; the Confederate army lost 25,000 (although that figure is questionable). Both commanding generals have been criticized for their conduct of the campaign—Lee for his unwarranted reliance on unseasoned commanders and his authorization of Pickett's charge; Meade for failing to organize his forces to counterattack and pursue the fleeing enemy. The campaign marked the high point of the Confederate activity during the war; thereafter the fortunes of the South went into a marked decline.

Bibliography

See F. A. Haskell, The Battle of Gettysburg (1898); C. Battine, The Crisis of the Confederacy (1905); J. B. Young, Battle of Gettysburg (1913); D. S. Freeman, R. E. Lee, Vol. III (1935); F. D. Downey, The Guns at Gettysburg (1958); E. B. Coddington, The Gettysburg Campaign (1968); B. Catton, Gettysburg (1974); A. C. Guelzo, Gettysburg (2013); P. T. Tucker, Pickett's Charge (2016).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Gettysburg Campaign in numbers and losses; synopses, orders of battle, strengths, casualties, and maps, June 9-July 14, 1863.
The Gettysburg campaign began when Lee spotted an opportunity to fatally cripple the Union's failing morale.
Sharpe's intelligence proved to be a major factor in the Union Army's timely pursuit of the enemy during the Gettysburg campaign and its remaining on the battlefield until victory was won.
If one accepts Lee's strategic mind, not only does the Gettysburg campaign make sense, but the successive tactical attacks on that battlefield do too--Lee was trying to win a war, and he was willing to take huge risks to achieve that goal.
Now in a completely revised edition updated with additional primary sources, new maps, and new black-and-white photographs, Flames Beyond Gettysburg: The Confederate Expedition to the Susquehanna River, June 1863 is a close study of a critical undertaking by Richard Ewell's Second Corps that was destined to impact the Gettysburg Campaign, and the course of the American Civil War.
For nearly thirty years Mort Kunstler has used his art to tell stories of the Civil War, capturing daily life of soldiers and leaders alike: this third volume pairs color photo reproductions of his Civil War paintings with discussions of events, making for a hard-hitting survey bringing alive the Gettysburg Campaign experience for both general-interest and military libraries alike.
Mingus has again collected a volume of anecdotal stories of combatants and civilians involved in the Gettysburg campaign.
The Civil War Paintings of Mort Kunstler, Vol Three: The Gettysburg Campaign
Mainella, director of the National Park Service, which is working in partnership with the Gettysburg Museum Foundation to preserve the resources of the park, to tell the story of the Gettysburg Campaign, and to give visitors a deeper, more lasting appreciation for what happened here.
After sketching the background of the Gettysburg campaign and recounting the events immediately preceding the battle, Pfanz offers a detailed tactical description of the first day's fighting.
Wingert has written four books on the Gettysburg Campaign.
The Iron Brigade in the Gettysburg Campaign, the first book-length historical accounting of the Iron Brigade (an all-Western outfit that served the Union entirely in the Eastern Theater during the American Civil War) during the summer of 1863, particularly the "four long hours" of Gettysburg that all but destroyed them.