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a monorhymed lyrical poem, consisting usually of five to 12 bayt couplets; common in the poetry of the Near and Middle East and in Southeast Asia. As a genre, the ghazal developed from popular lyrical song, probably in the seventh century, and took its final shape in the 13th and 14th centuries. Only the second misra (hemistich) rhymes, except in the first bayt (matla) in which both misras rhyme. The rhyming pattern is aa, ba, ca, da. In the last bayt (maqta) the tahallus (pseudonym of the author) must be mentioned. As a rule, every bayt of the ghazal contains a completed thought with a self-contained meaning. Outstanding Persian and Tadjik poets (such as Saadi, Hafiz, Kamal, and later Jami), as well as Uzbek (Alisher Navoi) and Azerbaijani (Nizami) poets, have composed classical examples of the ghazal. Certain European poets who turned to Oriental themes used the ghazal form, including Goethe, Bodenstedt, and, in Russia, V. Briusov.


Bertel’s, E. E. Persidskaia poeziia v Bukhare v X veke. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Braginskii, I. S. “O vozniknovenii gazeli v tadzhikskoi i persidskoi literature.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1958, no. 2.
Mirzoev, A. M. Rudaki i razvitie gazeli v X-XV vv. Stalinabad, 1958.




(Bahr al-Ghazal), a river in the southwestern Sudan, a left tributary of the White Nile. The Bahr al-Ghazal is formed by the confluence of the Bahr al-Arab and the Jur River at the town of Ghabat al-Arab. Measured from the place of confluence, it is approximately 240 km long. It flows through vast swamps. Düring the summer rains navigation is possible up to the town of Waw on the Jur River. After the water level falls, the Bahr al-Ghazal is navigable from the place of confluence of its headstreams.

References in periodicals archive ?
Of the current crop of wannabe Apprentices Ghazal, now based in Windsor, tips loud-mouth sales manager Lee McQueen to land the job with Sir Alan.
Ghazal said the show has helped her get an even better job with her old firm.
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The centre offers a 35-day programme of theoretical and practical training to Al Ghazal drivers and employees.
Ghazal singer Pankaj Udhas brings out the pathos just as he did on screen in the Sanjay Dutt-starrer directed by Mahesh Bhatt.
Former civil servants from Western Bahr el Ghazal gather at the public service ministry on 18 November 2014 (ST)
Using that essence, the ghazal singer and her band, The Z Factor, are set to perform a medley of ghazal songs with a jazz base at an upcoming show in the Capital.
Ghazal authored numerous publications and book chapters and was selected to present her research at national meetings.
Ayaz Gul, who is an acclaimed poet of Ghazal from Sindh, teaches Sindhi language and literature at Shah Abdul Lateef Bhittai University Khairpur and is director of the Sachal Chair, dedicated to research and promotion of message of Sachal Sarmast and Sufism.
Ghazalaw is a musical love-match, the marriage of two great traditions of love poetry and traditional music: the ghazal singing of the Indian sub-continent and the folk song of Wales.
Ghazal says the cyclists plan to travel to New York when they reach Washington DC to address the UN General Assembly on the issue.
Ghazal was elected in 2010 in line with consensus reached between rival politicians maintaining influence in Tripoli: former Prime Minister Saad Hariri, late Prime Minister Omar Karami, former Prime Minister Najib Mikati and former Minister Mohammad Safadi.