Ghaznavids

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Ghaznavids

 

a dynasty of Turkic descent that ruled the Ghaznavid state (tenth century to the 12th), founded in 962 by the Samanid military leader Alptigin.

In 962, Alptigin declared himself the independent ruler of the city of Ghazni, relying on the support of guardsmen who were personally loyal to him and from whose ranks he himself had come. The Ghaznavid state reached the peak of its power under Subuktigin (977-97) and especially under Mahmud al-Ghazni (998-1030), when its territory included present-day Afghanistan, a number of regions in Iran and Middle Asia, and the northern and northwestern provinces of India. With the flourishing of the Ghaznavid state, its rulers encouraged the development of science and culture. Outstanding scholars and poets lived and worked at the Ghaznavid court, including Biruni, Utbi, Baihaki, Gardizi, and Firdousi.

The aggressive campaigns of the Ghaznavids were accompanied by the ruin of entire provinces, the destruction of the irrigation system, and the plundering and enslavement of the population. These policies weakened the Ghaznavid state and intensified the class struggle, as shown by popular uprisings and also by the growing activity of religious sects and tendencies (the Ismailians, the Karmathians, and the Sufis). The disintegration of the state began under Masud I (1030-41). After 1040 its territory included only part of present-day Afghanistan and the Punjab. At the end of the 1170’s the Ghurids inflicted the final blow on the Ghaznavids, forcing them into northern India. After the capture in 1186 of Lahore, which had been under the rule of the Ghaznavid Khosrov-Malik (from 1160 to 1186 or 1187), the Ghaznavid state and dynasty ceased to exist.

References in periodicals archive ?
Q: The Seljuq king Sultan Sanjar renovated the Shrine of Imam Reza that was ordered to be destroyed by the Ghaznavid king Saboktakin.
After a general survey of attitudes, religious and otherwise, to panegyric and patronage (chap, one) and a presentation of various strategies adopted by poets in the course of their careers to gain and keep patrons (chap, two), the third chapter traces the biographies of the poets whose qasldas are discussed--two third/ninth-century Arab poets, Abu Tammam and al-Buhturi, both of Syrian origin and panegyrists in, primarily, 'Abbasid Baghdad, and two fifth/eleventh-century Persian ones, 'Unsuri and Farrukhi, both panegyrists at the Ghaznavid court in what is now Afghanistan.
The side effects of one of the numerous historical Ghaznavid period considered, on the other hand, one of the most important texts of the Persian language, that is, to such an extent that we can say, on the peak of eloquence Beyhaqi Persian.
The Roma expanded out of India and into Europe in the 11th century following the expansion of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Contrary to popular belief, there lies a tremendous opportunity for domestic tourism to address the appetite of those interested in the history of the region such as retracing the Silk Road, Ghaznavid Empire, Muslim and Buddhist religious sites in the north and central provinces, extreme sports such as river rafting, biking, and mountain climbing as well as others.
Ayazi traced back the once popular industry to the Ghaznavid era.
An indication of how the sculptures were used is found in the main assembly hall or throne room of a Ghaznavid palace at Laskari Bazaar in Afghanistan, where rows of guardian figures were painted on the sidewalls.
Upon its completion in 1010, the new ruling Turkic dynasty, the Ghaznavids, had ended the Persian renaissance and legend has it that when Firdawsi delivered the piece to Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud, the latter thought so little of it he paid Firdawsi only a small fee.
He was born in Ghazna (in present day Afghanistan) in the beginning of Ghaznavid period (around 990) and died in Lahore in 1077.
The cultural heritage of Swat ranges from the Stone Age to the Greek remains, the Buddhist, Hindu Shahi, and Ghaznavid sites, not to mention the important Islamic heritage represented by the wooden mosques of Upper Swat.