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a dynasty of Turkic descent that ruled the Ghaznavid state (tenth century to the 12th), founded in 962 by the Samanid military leader Alptigin.

In 962, Alptigin declared himself the independent ruler of the city of Ghazni, relying on the support of guardsmen who were personally loyal to him and from whose ranks he himself had come. The Ghaznavid state reached the peak of its power under Subuktigin (977-97) and especially under Mahmud al-Ghazni (998-1030), when its territory included present-day Afghanistan, a number of regions in Iran and Middle Asia, and the northern and northwestern provinces of India. With the flourishing of the Ghaznavid state, its rulers encouraged the development of science and culture. Outstanding scholars and poets lived and worked at the Ghaznavid court, including Biruni, Utbi, Baihaki, Gardizi, and Firdousi.

The aggressive campaigns of the Ghaznavids were accompanied by the ruin of entire provinces, the destruction of the irrigation system, and the plundering and enslavement of the population. These policies weakened the Ghaznavid state and intensified the class struggle, as shown by popular uprisings and also by the growing activity of religious sects and tendencies (the Ismailians, the Karmathians, and the Sufis). The disintegration of the state began under Masud I (1030-41). After 1040 its territory included only part of present-day Afghanistan and the Punjab. At the end of the 1170’s the Ghurids inflicted the final blow on the Ghaznavids, forcing them into northern India. After the capture in 1186 of Lahore, which had been under the rule of the Ghaznavid Khosrov-Malik (from 1160 to 1186 or 1187), the Ghaznavid state and dynasty ceased to exist.

References in periodicals archive ?
There is a possible interpretation regarding the fictional rule of Mirkh Shah: that it might have been a reference to the Sunni persecution of Ismailis, which took place at the hands of Ghaznavid rulers and governors in Sindh and Multan.
There is mention of the Ghaznavid, Ghurid, Seljuk, Khalji, Kurd and Ayyubid dynasties, and of the Crusades and Nuruddin Zangi.
While the legendary poet was working on his epic poem, Khorasan came under the rule of Sultan Mahmoud, a Turkoman Muslim and consolidator of the Ghaznavid dynasty.
He was born in Ghazni, Afghanistan (990 AD) during the Ghaznavid Empire and settled and died in Lahore spreading the spirit of brotherhood in Sufism.
There are two reasons for the importance of Ayaz's grave one, it endorses the existence of the Ghaznavid rule in Lahore and thus it shows that Lahore existed at that time.
The old Gandhara civilization merged into the Ghaznavid civilization which provided special bent to the Muslim civilization.
Their discovery of a mosque of the Ghaznavid period at Raja Gira was of great significance to the preservation of historical sites of the early Islamic period in Pakistan.
Evidenced most clearly in the titulature inscribed on the official coinage of the Saffarid, Samanid, and Ghaznavid rulers; see, e.
He significantly contributed to the spreading of Islam in South Asia; He was born around 990 CE near Ghazni, present day Afghanistan, during the Ghaznavid Empire and died in Lahore in 1072 CE.
In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands to the province of Khorasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid Empire.
Q: The Seljuq king Sultan Sanjar renovated the Shrine of Imam Reza that was ordered to be destroyed by the Ghaznavid king Saboktakin.
The side effects of one of the numerous historical Ghaznavid period considered, on the other hand, one of the most important texts of the Persian language, that is, to such an extent that we can say, on the peak of eloquence Beyhaqi Persian.