Ghaznavids


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Ghaznavids

 

a dynasty of Turkic descent that ruled the Ghaznavid state (tenth century to the 12th), founded in 962 by the Samanid military leader Alptigin.

In 962, Alptigin declared himself the independent ruler of the city of Ghazni, relying on the support of guardsmen who were personally loyal to him and from whose ranks he himself had come. The Ghaznavid state reached the peak of its power under Subuktigin (977-97) and especially under Mahmud al-Ghazni (998-1030), when its territory included present-day Afghanistan, a number of regions in Iran and Middle Asia, and the northern and northwestern provinces of India. With the flourishing of the Ghaznavid state, its rulers encouraged the development of science and culture. Outstanding scholars and poets lived and worked at the Ghaznavid court, including Biruni, Utbi, Baihaki, Gardizi, and Firdousi.

The aggressive campaigns of the Ghaznavids were accompanied by the ruin of entire provinces, the destruction of the irrigation system, and the plundering and enslavement of the population. These policies weakened the Ghaznavid state and intensified the class struggle, as shown by popular uprisings and also by the growing activity of religious sects and tendencies (the Ismailians, the Karmathians, and the Sufis). The disintegration of the state began under Masud I (1030-41). After 1040 its territory included only part of present-day Afghanistan and the Punjab. At the end of the 1170’s the Ghurids inflicted the final blow on the Ghaznavids, forcing them into northern India. After the capture in 1186 of Lahore, which had been under the rule of the Ghaznavid Khosrov-Malik (from 1160 to 1186 or 1187), the Ghaznavid state and dynasty ceased to exist.

References in periodicals archive ?
This heritage is testimony to the foot prints of different races, such as Greeks, Kushan, Arabs, Persians, and Turks, and the legacy of dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Soomra, and Mughals, she said.
It is estimated that in most cases, metal objects dating to the sixth century AH / twelfth century AD during the rule of the Ghaznavids belong.
During the ruling of Ghaznavids and Ghurids, Persian language first spread in the north of India and since the early 8th century, the Persian gathered in that part of India.
Lewis argues that such terrible reversals of fortune for the Ghaznavids had one obvious effect on the panegyric qasida: they began to be shorter.
The exhibition features 37 historical objects from the MIA's collection -- artifacts from four dynasties with connections to Afghanistan: the Ghaznavids (977-1186 CE), the Timurids (1370-1506 CE), the Mughals (1526-1857 CE), and the Safavids (1501-1722 CE), and 37 contemporary pieces created specially for the show by TMI students, who drew inspiration from the former.
The gallery has been divided into four sections representing the four great dynasties namely the Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals and Safavids.
The remainder of the chapter is dedicated to charting and describing the proliferation of tribal Turco-Mongol dynasties in the region and the cultures they nourished, from the Ghaznavids to the Seljuqs all the way to the Aq Qoyunlu, and the dynasties in between.
Arab rule gave way to the Persians, who controlled the area until conquered by the Turkic Ghaznavids in 998.
Bosworth, "The Rise of the Karamiyyah in Khurasan," Muslim World 50 (1960): 5-14; idem, The Ghaznavids (Beirut, 1973), 185-94; idem, "Karriimiyya, [EI.
subset]], in which he complains of the Saljuqs' failure to patronize historians--as well as variations on this topos (as in Bayhaqi: since others better qualified are busy with other tasks, he has taken it upon himself to write the history of Ghaznavids, lest it should be forgotten).
Saleh revealed that from Alchamenian, it onwards came under the sway of many different influences and rulers namely Mauryans, Greeks, Scythians, Kushans, Sasanians, White Huns, Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Slave Dynasty, Ghorids, Suri Afghans, Mughals, Durrani Afghans, Sikhs and the British before creation of Pakistan.
On that basis I think Feifer could soon find himself facing legal action from, say, the representatives of ancient Persia, or the Mongols, or the heirs of Tamerlane (who governed the place for almost two centuries, most of it from their glittering capital in Herat), or even the Ghaznavids (don't ask).