Ghaznavids


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Ghaznavids

 

a dynasty of Turkic descent that ruled the Ghaznavid state (tenth century to the 12th), founded in 962 by the Samanid military leader Alptigin.

In 962, Alptigin declared himself the independent ruler of the city of Ghazni, relying on the support of guardsmen who were personally loyal to him and from whose ranks he himself had come. The Ghaznavid state reached the peak of its power under Subuktigin (977-97) and especially under Mahmud al-Ghazni (998-1030), when its territory included present-day Afghanistan, a number of regions in Iran and Middle Asia, and the northern and northwestern provinces of India. With the flourishing of the Ghaznavid state, its rulers encouraged the development of science and culture. Outstanding scholars and poets lived and worked at the Ghaznavid court, including Biruni, Utbi, Baihaki, Gardizi, and Firdousi.

The aggressive campaigns of the Ghaznavids were accompanied by the ruin of entire provinces, the destruction of the irrigation system, and the plundering and enslavement of the population. These policies weakened the Ghaznavid state and intensified the class struggle, as shown by popular uprisings and also by the growing activity of religious sects and tendencies (the Ismailians, the Karmathians, and the Sufis). The disintegration of the state began under Masud I (1030-41). After 1040 its territory included only part of present-day Afghanistan and the Punjab. At the end of the 1170’s the Ghurids inflicted the final blow on the Ghaznavids, forcing them into northern India. After the capture in 1186 of Lahore, which had been under the rule of the Ghaznavid Khosrov-Malik (from 1160 to 1186 or 1187), the Ghaznavid state and dynasty ceased to exist.

References in periodicals archive ?
Ferdowsi took 33 years to complete his epic, by that time the rule of eastern Iran had passed to the Turkoman Ghaznavids.
The actual evidence for the nucleus of a citadel goes back centuries to the Ghaznavids (and even earlier, perhaps) but the stronghold achieved its current fame in the Durrani erea, in the 18th century.
The second chapter of this section, "The Near East, North Africa, Europe," gives us a whirlwind tour of elephants and Alexander, the Seleucids, the Ptolomies, the Carthaginians, the Greeks and Romans, the Sassanians, and the Ghaznavids.
This cultural development in turn was followed between 1000 and 1220 AD by a complete reconfiguration of the region--ethnically, linguistically and politically--by further Islamic Turkic migrations and through dynasties they established such as the Seljuks, the Karakhanids, and the Ghaznavids.
The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the battle of Nasa plains in 1035.
This heritage is testimony to the foot prints of different races, such as Greeks, Kushan, Arabs, Persians, and Turks, and the legacy of dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Soomra, and Mughals, she said.
It is estimated that in most cases, metal objects dating to the sixth century AH / twelfth century AD during the rule of the Ghaznavids belong.
His rule held the Qarakhanids ambitions in check on the north-eastern frontiers and countered the Ghaznavids on the eastern borders.
During the ruling of Ghaznavids and Ghurids, Persian language first spread in the north of India and since the early 8th century, the Persian gathered in that part of India.
In regional perspective, Ghorids mainly succeeded Ghaznavids, a hard fact that in the wars of conquest, both interfaith and intra-faith clashes are inevitable.
Despite of this shortcoming, it is considered a very important and authentic source regarding the Mongol invasions in the thirteenth century CE, as well as the accounts of the Ghaznavids, the Ghorids and Slave dynasty for author was eye-witness.
Historians believed that carpet making was introduced to the region now constituting Pakistan as far back as the 11th century with the coming of the first Muslim conquerors the Ghaznavids and the Ghauris.