Benedict XV

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Benedict XV,

1854–1922, pope (1914–22), an Italian (b. Genoa) named Giacomo della Chiesa; successor of Pius XPius X, Saint,
1835–1914, pope (1903–14), an Italian named Giuseppe Sarto, b. near Treviso; successor of Leo XIII and predecessor of Benedict XV. Ordained in 1858, he became bishop of Mantua (1884), a cardinal (1893), and patriarch of Venice (1893).
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. He was made archbishop of Bologna in 1907 and cardinal in 1914, two months before his election as pope. His policy in World War I was one of the strictest neutrality, and he had the respect of all belligerents. He originated several proposals for peace. Benedict was charitable toward war victims, and he founded the Vatican service for prisoners of war. During his pontificate France and England resumed diplomatic relations with the Holy See and he promulgated (1917) the Code of Canon Law (Codex iuris canonici). He was succeeded by Pius XIPius XI,
1857–1939, pope (1922–39), an Italian named Achille Ratti, b. Desio, near Milan; successor of Benedict XV. Prepapal Career

Ratti's father was a silk manufacturer. He studied in Milan and at the Gregorian Univ., Rome, and was ordained in 1879.
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.

Bibliography

See biography by W. H. Peters (1959).

Benedict XV

 

(secular name, Marchese Giacomo Delia Chiesa). Born Nov. 21, 1854, in Pegli, near Genoa; died Jan. 22, 1922, in Rome. Pope from 1914 to 1922.

From 1883 to 1907, Delia Chiesa was in the Vatican diplomatic service. He served as bishop of Bologna between 1907 and 1914, becoming cardinal in 1914. During World War 1 (1914–18), while the Vatican officially proclaimed its neutrality, he in fact supported the Austro-German bloc. In 1916–17 the Vatican undertook an active diplomatic policy to achieve a compromise imperialistic peace for the purpose of preventing revolution in the warring countries (An Address to the Leaders of the Warring Countries, Aug. 1, 1917, and other notes). Benedict XV took a hostile position with regard to the Great October Socialist Revolution and Soviet power.

M. M. SHEINMAN

Benedict XV

original name Giacomo della Chiesa. 1854--1922, pope (1914--22); noted for his repeated attempts to end World War I and for his organization of war relief