# venturi tube

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## Venturi tube

A device that consists of a gradually decreasing nozzle through which the fluid in a pipe is accelerated, followed by a gradually increasing diffuser section that allows the fluid to nearly regain its original pressure head (see illustration). It can be used to measure the flow rate in the pipe, or it can be used to pump a secondary fluid by aspirating it at the nozzle exit. The ability of the venturi tube to regain much of the original pressure head makes it especially useful in measuring the flow rate in systems which have a low pressure differential or pressure head that drives the fluid through the pipe or where the cost of pumping the fluid is an important factor. Conserving the pressure head decreases the amount of energy required to pump the fluid through the pipe.

A gradual expansion of flow downstream of a nozzle eliminates flow separation, allowing recovery of most of the original pressure head. In the case where the main flow separates from the wall, a large percentage of the fluid energy is lost in the eddies caused by the separation.

The flow through the device obeys Bernoulli's equation, and the formula for calculating the flow is similar to the equation for orifices. The venturi meter belongs to the class of differential pressure-sensing devices that are used to indicate flow. *See* Bernoulli's theorem

## venturi tube

[ven′tu̇r·ē ‚tüb]## Venturi tube

A device that consists of a gradually decreasing nozzle through which the fluid in a pipe is accelerated, followed by a gradually increasing diffuser section that allows the fluid to nearly regain its original pressure head (see illustration). It can be used to measure the flow rate in the pipe, or it can be used to pump a secondary fluid by aspirating it at the nozzle exit. The ability of the venturi tube to regain much of the original pressure head makes it especially useful in measuring the flow rate in systems which have a low pressure differential or pressure head that drives the fluid through the pipe or where the cost of pumping the fluid is an important factor. Conserving the pressure head decreases the amount of energy required to pump the fluid through the pipe.

A gradual expansion of flow downstream of a nozzle eliminates flow separation, allowing recovery of most of the original pressure head. In the case where the main flow separates from the wall, a large percentage of the fluid energy is lost in the eddies caused by the separation.

The flow through the device obeys Bernoulli's equation, and the formula for calculating the flow is similar to the equation for orifices. The venturi meter belongs to the class of differential pressure-sensing devices that are used to indicate flow. *See* Flow measurement, Metering orifice

## venturi tube

*(P)*, a crosssectional area

*(a)*, and the speed

*(V*) is constant. This is known as the

*venturi effect*.