Paul VI

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Paul VI,

1897–1978, pope (1963–78), an Italian (b. Concesio, near Brescia) named Giovanni Battista Montini; successor of John XXIIIJohn XXIII, Saint,
1881–1963, pope (1958–63), an Italian (b. Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo) named Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; successor of Pius XII. He was of peasant stock.
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.

Prepapal Career

The son of a prominent newspaper editor, he was ordained in 1920. Later he did advanced studies in Rome and entered (1922) the Vatican secretariat of state, in which he served for 32 years. After 1944, when Pius XIIPius XII,
1876–1958, pope (1939–58), an Italian named Eugenio Pacelli, b. Rome; successor of Pius XI. Ordained a priest in 1899, he entered the Vatican's secretariat of state.
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 acted as his own secretary of state, Montini became especially influential as one of the two prosecretaries on whom the pope relied. As archbishop of Milan (1954–63) he showed particular concern with social problems and worked to improve relations between workers and employers. He was created a cardinal in 1958.

Papacy

The Second Vatican Council

Elected pope in June, 1963, Paul immediately demonstrated his intention of continuing the reforms of his predecessor, John XXIII. He reconvened the Second Vatican Council (see Vatican Council, SecondVatican Council, Second,
popularly called Vatican II,
1962–65, the 21st ecumenical council (see council, ecumenical) of the Roman Catholic Church, convened by Pope John XXIII and continued under Paul VI.
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) and supervised the carrying out of many of its reforms, such as the vernacularization and reform of the liturgy. With the aim of continuing the work of the council after it ended, he instituted an international synod of bishops, and bishops were instructed to set up councils of priests in their own dioceses. In addition, considerable powers of dispensation were devolved from the Roman Curia onto the bishops, the rules on fasting and abstinence were relaxed, and some of the restrictions on intermarriage were lifted. A commission on canon law revision was also established.

International Relations

In 1964, Paul VI made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land; he was the first pope in over 150 years to leave Italy. That historic journey was followed by trips to India (1964), the United States (1965), where he addressed the United Nations, and other parts of the world, including Africa (1969) and Southeast Asia (1970). Relations between the Vatican and the Communist world were improved; Communist leaders visited the Vatican for the first time, and in 1971 Cardinal MindszentyMindszenty, József
, 1892–1975, Hungarian prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was bishop of Veszprém during the German occupation of Hungary in World War II.
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, whose presence in the U.S. embassy in Budapest had long bedeviled church-state relations in Hungary, was finally persuaded to go to Rome.

Reassertions of Papal Primacy

The broader international outlook of the Vatican under Paul VI was matched by a new ecumenism. The pope met with the leaders of other churches and addressed (1969) the World Council of Churches, and limited doctrinal agreements were reached with the Anglicans and Lutherans. Such accords, however, did not represent any modification of the papal claim to spiritual leadership of the whole Christian Church, nor of the doctrine of papal infallibility. In fact, Pope Paul issued frequent reassertions of papal primacy in the face of growing dissent within the Roman Catholic Church itself.

In 1968, in the encyclical Humanae Vitae, Paul reaffirmed the church's long-standing ban on contraception. The encyclical, a disappointment to many liberals within the church, raised a storm of protest, and many national hierarchies openly modified the statement. In the ferment that ensued, liberals also raised questions about priestly celibacy, divorce, and the role of women in the church—all issues on which Paul upheld the traditional position of the church. The dispute developed into a real contest of strength between the Vatican and the Dutch hierarchy in particular, which in 1970 endorsed the marriage of priests and the admission of women into the priesthood. The synod of bishops in 1971 supported the pope's stand on priestly celibacy, but a sizable minority were opposed. At the synod of bishops of 1974, assembled to discuss "evangelization in the modern world," Pope Paul disapproved the bishops' proposal for greater autonomy for the local churches. He was succeeded briefly by John Paul IJohn Paul I,
1912–78, pope (1978), an Italian (b. Canale d'Agordo) named Albino Luciani; successor of Paul VI. Born into a poor, working-class family, he trained at local seminaries and at the Gregorian Univ. in Rome.
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 and then by John Paul IIJohn Paul II, Saint
1920–2005, pope (1978–2005), a Pole (b. Wadowice) named Karol Józef Wojtyła; successor of John Paul I. He was the first non-Italian pope elected since the Dutch Adrian VI (1522–23) and the first Polish and Slavic pope.
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. Paul VI was beatified by Pope Francis in 2014.

Bibliography

See his Christian in the Material World (tr. 1963), Dialogues (tr. 1964), The Church (tr. 1964), and The Pope Speaks (tr. 1968). See also W. Wynn, Keepers of the Keys: John XXIII, Paul VI, and John Paul II (1988); J. E. Smith, Humanae Vitae, a Generation Later (1991).

Paul VI

original name Giovanni Battista Montini. 1897--1978, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1963--1978)
References in periodicals archive ?
Present were French Cardinal Achille Lienart, Dutchman Bernard Alfrink, Canadian Emile Leger, Austrian Franz Konig, Belgian Leon Suenens, German Josef Frings, and Italian Giovanni Battista Montini.
Giovanni Battista Montini, for example, was the sostituto under Pius XII before becoming Paul VI.
Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini (the future Paul VI) took "The Deputy" playwright Rolf Hochhuth to task for "an inadequate grasp of the psychological and political realities" in those "appaling conditions of war and Nazi oppression" during which Pius XII tried "so far as he could fully and courageously to carry out the mission entrusted to him.
When John XXIII died in 1963, eyes turned to Suenens as a possible successor; but the ballots went to Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, Paul VI, who then, as he addressed the throngs in St.
The election of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini as Paul VI in June 1963 was also a victory for the curia.