Pius IX

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Pius IX,

1792–1878, pope (1846–78), an Italian named Giovanni M. Mastai-Ferretti, b. Senigallia; successor of Gregory XVIGregory XVI,
1765–1846, pope (1831–46), an Italian named Bartolomeo Alberto Capellari, b. Belluno; successor of Pius VIII. In 1783 he became a Camaldolite and was (1825) created cardinal.
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. He was cardinal and bishop of Imola when elected pope. For two years he pursued a progressive policy in governing the Papal StatesPapal States,
Ital. Lo Stato della Chiesa, from 754 to 1870 an independent territory under the temporal rule of the popes, also called the States of the Church and the Pontifical States. The territory varied in size at different times; in 1859 it included c.
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 and granted a constitution. However, in 1848 rioting drove him from Rome to Gaeta, and he returned (1850) to be supported in power only by the forces of Napoleon III. The Italian nationalists were eager for Rome and the Papal States, and in 1860 Victor Emmanuel II seized all but Rome and its neighborhood. In 1870, on the deposition of Napoleon III, the Italians entered Rome, and Pius retired to the Vatican, refusing to recognize the new kingdom and to accept the proffered indemnity. The anomalous situation, called the Roman Question, was settled eventually by the Lateran TreatyLateran Treaty,
concordat between the Holy See and the kingdom of Italy signed in 1929 in the Lateran Palace, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparri for Pius XI and by Benito Mussolini for Victor Emmanuel III. One of the important negotiators was Cardinal Pacelli, later Pope Pius XII.
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. Pius's dealings with other nations were unfortunate, and he did not conduct his side of the KulturkampfKulturkampf
[Ger.,=conflict of cultures], the conflict between the German government under Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church. The promulgation (1870) of the dogma of the infallibility of the pope in matters of faith and morals within the church sparked the conflict; it
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 with the finesse of his successor. In 1854, Pius declared the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin to be an article of faith. In 1864 he issued the encyclical Quanta cura, accompanied by a list (Syllabus) of erroneous modernistic statements. In 1869 he convoked the First Vatican CouncilVatican Council, First,
1869–70, the 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church (see council, ecumenical), renowned chiefly for its enunciation of the doctrine of papal infallibility.
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, the principal work of which was the enunciation of papal infallibility. Pius IX's pontificate—the longest in history—helped define the role of Roman Catholicism in the modern world. He was succeeded by Leo XIIILeo XIII,
1810–1903, pope (1878–1903), an Italian (b. Carpineto, E of Rome) named Gioacchino Pecci; successor of Pius IX. Ordained in 1837, he earned an excellent reputation as archbishop of Perugia (1846–77), and was created cardinal in 1853.
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. Pius IX was beatified in 2000 by John Paul II.

Pius IX

original name Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti. 1792--1878, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1846--78). He refused to recognize the incorporation of Rome and the Papal States in the kingdom of Italy, confining himself to the Vatican after 1870. He decreed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception (1854) and convened the Vatican Council, which laid down the doctrine of papal infallibility (1870)