Giraud, Henri Honoré

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Giraud, Henri Honoré

(äNrē` ōnôrā` zhērō`), 1879–1949, French general. He served in World War I and in the campaign in Morocco (1925–26). A commander in World War II, he was captured by the Germans in May, 1940, but made a dramatic escape (1942) to unoccupied France and from there to Gibraltar. He took part in the Allied landing in North Africa, where he was given command of all French armed forces. On the assassination (Dec., 1942) of Admiral DarlanDarlan, Jean François
, 1881–1942, French admiral. A career naval officer, he became commander of the French navy in 1939 and joined the Vichy government (see under Vichy) in 1940 as minister of the navy. After the fall of Pierre Laval, Darlan was made (Feb.
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, Giraud succeeded as high commissioner of French North and West Africa. His conservatism earned him the opposition of the Free French Committee of General de Gaullede Gaulle, Charles
, 1890–1970, French general and statesman, first president (1959–69) of the Fifth Republic. The World Wars

During World War I de Gaulle served with distinction until his capture in 1916. In The Army of the Future (1934, tr.
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. He and de Gaulle met fruitlessly at the Casablanca ConferenceCasablanca Conference,
Jan. 14–24, 1943, World War II meeting of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at Casablanca, French Morocco.
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, but in June, 1943, a semblance of union was effected by the formation at Algiers of the French Committee of National Liberation, with the two generals as co-presidents. Despite strong backing by the United States, Giraud was soon removed (November) from the co-presidency. In Apr., 1944, he was virtually forced by de Gaulle to retire as commander in chief.

Giraud, Henri Honoré

 

Born Jan. 18, 1879, in Paris; died Mar. 11, 1949, in Dijon. French general and political figure.

Giraud graduated from Saint Cyr in 1900. He fought in World War I. From 1922 to 1926 he took part in the suppression of the liberation uprising in Morocco. At the beginning of World War II he commanded the Seventh Army and then the Ninth Army. In May 1940 he was captured by the Germans, but in April 1942 he escaped to the unoccupied zone of France and established ties with H. P. Pétain and representatives of the United States to the Vichy government. In November 1942 with the help of American intelligence he moved to Algiers, and after the Anglo-American landing in North Africa he was appointed commander of the French forces in North Africa on Nov. 17, 1942. He was made chief of the French military and civil administration in North Africa on Dec. 27, 1942. From June to November 1943 he was cochairman with de Gaulle of the French Committee of National Liberation. He was relieved of this post after differences with de Gaulle and after he was charged with maintaining secret contacts with the Vichy government. In April 1944 he was also relieved of the office of commander of the Free French armed forces., which he had held since November 1943. In 1948 he was appointed vice-president of the Supreme War Council.