Girondins

(redirected from Girondin)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

Girondins

 

a political grouping (a de facto party) of the period of the Great French Revolution that represented primarily the provincial republican commercial-industrial and agricultural bourgeoisie. Some time after its formation, the group was named after the department of the Gironde, from which many of its leaders came. Among the leaders of the Girondins were J. P. Brissot, P. V. Vergniaud, J. M. Roland and his wife, Madame Roland, and J. A. Condorcet.

In the first stage of the revolution the Girondins were not yet a separate group. Primarily members of the Jacobin Club, they acted with other revolutionary forces against absolutism. The differentiation of the Girondins from the left wing of the Jacobin Club, which was led by M. Robespierre, began in the autumn of 1791, when the Girondins began to propagandize for an immediate war against the coalition of feudal and monarchical European states. Expressing the interests of the big bourgeoisie, they endeavored to hasten the onset of war, hoping to expand the borders of France, seize new markets, distract the masses from the class struggle, and subject them to the bourgeois Girondin influence. The self-interested aims of the Girondins were masked by patriotic and revolutionary phrases.

Louis XVI summoned the Girondins to power in March 1792, and the first Girondin ministry was formed. However, in June 1792 the king dismissed the ministry. After the over-throw of the monarchy on Aug. 10, 1792, which occurred despite the Girondins’ opposition, and the fall of the Feuillant government, the Girondins, who held a leading position in the National Convention, came to power again. They tried to retard the development of the revolution, opposing, for example, the immediate establishment of republican forms of government. The Girondins were excluded from the Jacobin Club in October 1792. During their further struggle with the Jacobins, they were gradually transformed from a conservative into a counterrevolutionary force. The Girondins were overthrown by the popular uprising of May 31-June 2, 1793. Forming a bloc with all other French counterrevolutionary forces, they instigated the murder of J.-P. Marat and tried to unleash a civil war against the Jacobin government. Their rebellions in Normandy and in southern France in June 1793 were suppressed. After the counterrevolutionary coup of 9 Thermidor (July 27–28, 1794), the Girondins, who had been arrested before the coup by the Jacobins, were pardoned, and the surviving Girondin deputies returned to the National Convention. The Girondins became one of the most militant counterrevolutionary forces.

REFERENCES

Lamartine, A. Istoriia zhirondistov, vols. 1–4. St. Petersburg, 1902–06.
Frantsuzskaia burzhuaznaia revoliutsiia 1789–1795. Edited by V. P. Volgin and E. V. Tarle. Moscow-Leningrad, 1941.
Manfred, A. Z. Velikaia burzhuaznaia frantsuzskaia revoliutsiia XVIII v. 1789–1794. Moscow, 1956.
Mathiez, A. Girondins et Montagnards, 3rd ed. Paris, 1930.
Sydenham, M. J. The Girondins. London, 1961.
Bernardin, E.J. M. Roland et le Ministère de I’intérieur (1792–1793). Paris, 1964.

A. Z. MANFRED

References in periodicals archive ?
With Girondin allies, she was a federalist after the American model, at a time when Robespierre stood for France "une et indivisible.
Andress is especially convincing in his descriptions of the machinations within the National Convention that turned former Republican friends and associates into bitter enemies and resulted in the expulsion of the Girondins in May/June 1793.
3) In fact, the federalist revolt, in Hanson's view, brought together local and national politics because the local struggle for political power became a national issue between the radical Montagnards and moderate Girondins.
La baisse d'intensite physique des Girondins a fait le reste.
A stoppage-time goal by Alex gave Ligue 1 champions Paris St Germain a 2-1 victory over French Cup winners Girondins Bordeaux and their first trophy of the season in the Supercup played in Libreville, Gabon on Saturday.
JOHN POWLS GETS A TASTE OF BORDEAUX WITH the Girondins of Bordeaux being earlier in their preseason than Boro in the final warm-up game, it was down to The Reds to make this last friendly opportunity a real work out.
But the French League (LFP) said they could not postpone Sunday's Ligue 1 game at Girondins Bordeaux.
Efficace sous le maillot des Girondins de Bordeaux jusqu'en 2010, Marouane Chamakh avait tape dans l'oeil d'Arsenal la meme annee.
Shola Ameobi had set Alan Pardew's side on their way with his 13th European goal following good work by Girondins old boy Gabriel Obertan, and Brazilian defender Henrique's 40th-minute own goal left the visitors in serious difficulties.
The 26-year-old completed a move on Friday which has long been speculated about, penning a long-term deal with the Gunners after the expiry of his contract with Les Girondins.
We have many great players at Arsenal and I will be giving everything to help the team win trophies next season," said the striker who joins Arsenal from French side Bordeaux, where he made a total of 293 appearances, scoring 79 goals during his eight years with Les Girondins.
The 44-year-old left Les Girondins on Sunday after a disappointing season, prompting FFF president Jean-Pierre Escalettes to confirm Blanc as his preferred choice to succeed Raymond Domenech after the finals in South Africa.