Clement VII

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Clement VII,

antipope (1378–94): see Robert of GenevaRobert of Geneva,
d. 1394, Genevan churchman, antipope (1378–94; see Schism, Great) with the name Clement VII. He was archbishop of Cambrai (1368) and was created (1371) a cardinal.
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.

Clement VII,

c.1475–1534, pope (1523–34), a Florentine named Giulio de' Medici; successor of Adrian VI. He was the nephew of Lorenzo de' Medici and was therefore first cousin of Pope Leo X. In 1513 he became a cardinal and as archbishop of Florence was noted as a reformer. He was a chief supporter and adviser of Adrian in his attempts to reform the church. As pope, however, he proved to be unaware of the menace of Lutheranism to the church and was certainly not the man for the opening battles of the Reformation. His relations with Holy Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
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 were never very cordial, since Clement allied himself with Francis IFrancis I,
1494–1547, king of France (1515–47), known as Francis of Angoulême before he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law, King Louis XII. Wars with the Holy Roman Emperor
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 of France in the League of Cognac (1526). As a result of his hostility to the emperor, the imperial troops attacked Rome in 1527, sacked the city, and held the pope for some months. Eventually (1529) peace was achieved and Clement crowned Charles emperor. About 1527 the first stage of the struggle of Henry VIIIHenry VIII,
1491–1547, king of England (1509–47), second son and successor of Henry VII. Early Life

In his youth he was educated in the new learning of the Renaissance and developed great skill in music and sports.
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 of England against the church began. Clement's behavior in the matter of the divorce and the dispensations for a new marriage has been called vacillating, but when the situation became critical, he put the irreproachable Cardinal CampeggioCampeggio, Lorenzo
, 1472?–1539, Italian churchman and diplomat, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was well known as a jurist before turning to the service of the church (c.1510) upon the death of his wife. He was made bishop in 1512 and cardinal the following year.
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 in charge of the case with Cardinal Wolsey. Later canon lawyers have steadily maintained that, whether he was influenced by Charles V or not, Clement followed the only course possible on legal grounds. He was a patron of Raphael, Michelangelo, and Benvenuto Cellini. He was succeeded by Paul III.

Clement VII

original name Giulio de' Medici. 1478--1534, pope (1523--34): refused to authorize the annulment of the marriage of Henry VIII of England to Catherine of Aragon (1533)
References in periodicals archive ?
86) This interpretation is also supported by the presence in the painting of the images of two relatives with strong French connections: de' Rossi seems to have been born in France (a cleric of Lyon), and both he and Giulio de' Medici held French benefices and were seen as supporters of a Franco-papal alliance.
Peter's, for whose construction he was having an indulgence preached, or in Santa Maria in Domnica, his titular church as cardinal, which later passed to his cousin Giulio de' Medici and then to his nephew Innocenzo Cybo (1491-1550).
116) Of the twenty prelates Leo appointed as papal assistants by 1517, many were distinguished and twelve (among whom were Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi) were promoted to the cardinalate.
Giulio de' Medici was appointed guardian of his cousin Caterina and supervised the administration of her possessions.
in the Opera del Duomo, in t he Arte della Lana, and as a provveditore of the cathedral),71 the generation of Giuliano and Giulio de' Medici had to achieve its influence through more discreet means, through the insinuation of a saintly surrogate.
Immediately upon his election as archbishop of Florence in 1513, Giulio de' Medici opted for an episcopal ingresso, an official and lavish entry into Florence that, according to tradition, had been introduced in local practice by Sr.
Cardinal Giulio de' Medici as a Patron of Art, 1515-1523.